How to format your references using the Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, X.S. Biochemistry. Enzyme kinetics, past and present. Science 2013, 342, 1457–1459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duffy, P.E.; Fried, M. Biomedicine. Turncoat antibodies. Science 2001, 293, 2009–2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hÿtch, M.J.; Putaux, J.-L.; Pénisson, J.-M. Measurement of the displacement field of dislocations to 0.03 A by electron microscopy. Nature 2003, 423, 270–273.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kong, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Masson, G.; Sigurdsson, A.; Jonasdottir, A.; Walters, G.B.; Jonasdottir, A.; Gylfason, A.; Kristinsson, K.T.; et al. Fine-scale recombination rate differences between sexes, populations and individuals. Nature 2010, 467, 1099–1103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, H.E. Electromagnetic Propagation in Multi-Mode Random Media; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, USA, 2001; ISBN 9780471200703.
An edited book
Applied Reconfigurable Computing: 12th International Symposium, ARC 2016 Mangaratiba, RJ, Brazil, March 22–24, 2016 Proceedings; Bonato, V., Bouganis, C., Gorgon, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9625; ISBN 9783319304809.
A chapter in an edited book
Willatt, J.M.; Cohan, R.H. Understaging T2: Limitations of Pelvic Imaging. In Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Management; Lee, C.T., Wood, D.P., Eds.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2010; pp. 35–39 ISBN 9781588299888.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Understanding Genetic Differences Between Breast Cancer Tumors Is Key To Better Treatment Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Must Be Taken Now to Address Slow Pace of Federal Progress; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Radcliffe, M.L. Random Graphs with Attribute Affinity. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Suffolk Seeks Ways to Ease School Taxes. New York Times 2007, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sensor and Actuator Networks
AbbreviationJ. Sens. Actuator Netw.
ISSN (online)2224-2708

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