How to format your references using the Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. Spain Aims at Premier League. Nature 2004, 431, 488–489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nussenzweig, M.C.; Mellman, I. Ralph Steinman (1943-2011). Nature 2011, 478, 460.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahlberg, P.E.; Clack, J.A.; Blom, H. The Axial Skeleton of the Devonian Tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature 2005, 437, 137–140.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lancrin, C.; Sroczynska, P.; Stephenson, C.; Allen, T.; Kouskoff, V.; Lacaud, G. The Haemangioblast Generates Haematopoietic Cells through a Haemogenic Endothelium Stage. Nature 2009, 457, 892–895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rich, P. Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118105887.
An edited book
Vertebrate Photoreceptors: Functional Molecular Bases; Furukawa, T., Hurley, J.B., Kawamura, S., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2014; ISBN 9784431548799.
A chapter in an edited book
Smyth, J.; Down, B.; McInerney, P. Socially Critical School/Community Relations. In The Socially Just School: Making Space for Youth to Speak Back; Down, B., McInerney, P., Eds.; Explorations of Educational Purpose; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 69–91 ISBN 9789401790598.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Molecules Have Been Built Using a Laser Beam for the First Time (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Continuing Professional Education Study: Budget Analysts in the Federal Government, GS-560 Series; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quashie, Z. Issues with Care Provided by Direct Care Workers: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Where to Fill Up the Table. New York Times 2009, NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sensor and Actuator Networks
AbbreviationJ. Sens. Actuator Netw.
ISSN (online)2224-2708

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