How to format your references using the Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemker, K.J. Materials science. Understanding how nanocrystalline metals deform. Science 2004, 304, 221–223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noor, E.; Milo, R. Evolution. Efficiency in evolutionary trade-offs. Science 2012, 336, 1114–1115.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hillebrandt, H.; Friston, K.J.; Blakemore, S.-J. Effective connectivity during animacy perception--dynamic causal modelling of Human Connectome Project data. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ménétrey, J.; Bahloul, A.; Wells, A.L.; Yengo, C.M.; Morris, C.A.; Sweeney, H.L.; Houdusse, A. The structure of the myosin VI motor reveals the mechanism of directionality reversal. Nature 2005, 435, 779–785.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva, L.S.; Simões, R.; Gervásio, H. Design of Steel Structures; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2014; ISBN 9783433604229.
An edited book
Advances in Web and Network Technologies, and Information Management: APWeb/WAIM 2007 International Workshops: DBMAN 2007, WebETrends 2007, PAIS 2007 and ASWAN 2007, Huang Shan, China, June 16-18, 2007. Proceedings; Chang, K.C.-C., Wang, W., Chen, L., Ellis, C.A., Hsu, C.-H., Tsoi, A.C., Wang, H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4537; ISBN 9783540729082.
A chapter in an edited book
Kothgassner, O.D.; Felnhofer, A.; Hlavacs, H.; Beutl, L.; Gomm, J.; Hauk, N.; Kastenhofer, E.; Kryspin-Exner, I. Debunking Differences between Younger and Older Adults Using a Collaborative Virtual Environment. In Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2013: 12th International Conference, ICEC 2013, São Paulo, Brazil, October 16-18, 2013. Proceedings; Anacleto, J.C., Clua, E.W.G., Silva, F.S.C. da, Fels, S., Yang, H.S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 36–47 ISBN 9783642411052.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks.

Blog post
Fang, J. Before-and-After Photos of Mars Reveal Largest Fresh Crater Ever Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Public Transit: FTA’s Process for Overseeing Compliance with Federal Civil Rights Requirements Incorporates Key Federal Practices; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, W. Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Universal’s Deal for Prince’s Songwriting Rights May Bring a Wider Audience. New York Times 2016, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sensor and Actuator Networks
AbbreviationJ. Sens. Actuator Netw.
ISSN (online)2224-2708

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