How to format your references using the Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes, D.K. Resource Availability: Ancient Homes for Hard-up Hermit Crabs. Nature 2001, 412, 785–786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zubkov, M.V.; Tarran, G.A. High Bacterivory by the Smallest Phytoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 2008, 455, 224–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wong, K.M.; Suchard, M.A.; Huelsenbeck, J.P. Alignment Uncertainty and Genomic Analysis. Science 2008, 319, 473–476.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jamora, C.; DasGupta, R.; Kocieniewski, P.; Fuchs, E. Links between Signal Transduction, Transcription and Adhesion in Epithelial Bud Development. Nature 2003, 422, 317–322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deschamps, J.-P.; Bioul, G.J.A.; Sutter, G.D. Synthesis of Arithmetic Circuits; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471741428.
An edited book
Reliable Software Technology – Ada-Europe 2005: 10th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, York, UK, June 20-24, 2005. Proceedings; Vardanega, T., Wellings, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3555; ISBN 9783540262862.
A chapter in an edited book
Yong, C.; Booth, D.C. Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment. In The Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008: Anatomy of a Disaster; Booth, D.C., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 160–185 ISBN 9783642211584.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks.

Blog post
Davis, J. Do Toilets Really Flow In Opposite Directions In Different Hemispheres? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Job Training Partnership Act: Participants, Services, and Outcomes; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stachowiak, D. How Executive Coaches Use the Results of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to Develop Their Coachees. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K. In Family’s Footsteps, Minor Takes Big Stage. New York Times 2017, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sensor and Actuator Networks
AbbreviationJ. Sens. Actuator Netw.
ISSN (online)2224-2708

Other styles