How to format your references using the Expert Review of Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Part-time growth. Nature. 420(6912), 3 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang C, Srinivasan SG. Unexpected strain-stiffening in crystalline solids. Nature. 496(7445), 339–342 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamb D, Erskine PD, Parrotta JA. Restoration of degraded tropical forest landscapes. Science. 310(5754), 1628–1632 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hernebring M, Fredriksson Å, Liljevald M, et al. Removal of damaged proteins during ES cell fate specification requires the proteasome activator PA28. Sci. Rep. 3, 1381 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahlemeyer-Stubbe A, Coleman S. A Practical Guide to Data Mining for Business and Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Liebenberg E, Collier P, Török ZG, editors. History of Cartography: International Symposium of the ICA, 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Franke T, Hoppe RHW, Linsenmann C, Wixforth A. Projection Based Model Reduction for Optimal Design of the Time-dependent Stokes System. In: Constrained Optimization and Optimal Control for Partial Differential Equations. Leugering G, Engell S, Griewank A, et al. (Eds.), Springer, Basel, 75–98 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Exactly Is Happening When Your Knuckles Crack? [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Progress and Challenges in Implementing Transportation Regulations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Korobenko A. Advanced Fluid–Structure Interaction Techniques in Application to Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF, Flegenheimer M. Christie Allies Joked of Disrupting Traffic at a Rabbi’s House. New York Times, A18 (2014).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Dermatology
ISSN (print)1746-9872
ISSN (online)1746-9880

Other styles