How to format your references using the Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray, L. B. (2013). Single-cell biology. Cells go solo. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6163), 1187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sitia, R., & Braakman, I. (2003). Quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum protein factory. Nature, 426(6968), 891–894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hellweger, F. L., van Sebille, E., & Fredrick, N. D. (2014). Biogeographic patterns in ocean microbes emerge in a neutral agent-based model. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6202), 1346–1349.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gachet, Y., Tournier, S., Millar, J. B., & Hyams, J. S. (2001). A MAP kinase-dependent actin checkpoint ensures proper spindle orientation in fission yeast. Nature, 412(6844), 352–355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, A. E. (2011). Luther’s Theology of the Cross. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Williams, P. J., & Newhouse, C. P. (Eds.). (2013). Digital Representations of Student Performance for Assessment. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Gomez, J. C., Wang, Q., & Doerschuk, C. M. (2013). Neutrophils in Acute Bacterial Pneumonia. In A. Prince (Ed.), Mucosal Immunology of Acute Bacterial Pneumonia (pp. 83–124). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 19). Pluto Has A Puzzling X-Ray Glow. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Teacher Preparation Programs: Education Should Ensure States Identify Low-Performing Programs and Improve Information-Sharing (No. GAO-15-598). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, B. A. (2017). Beneficial Tensile Mean Strain Effects on the Fatigue Behavior of Superelastic NiTi (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2015, March 9). Black Mask Plans YouTube Comics Channels and Animated Movies. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ray 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ray 2013; Sitia and Braakman 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sitia and Braakman 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Gachet et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleRenewables: Wind, Water, and Solar
ISSN (online)2198-994X

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