How to format your references using the Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, G. (2014). Astrophysics: A tight duo in a trio of black holes. Nature, 511(7507), 35–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poliakoff, M., & King, P. (2001). Phenomenal fluids. Nature, 412(6843), 125.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malmgren, R. D., Ottino, J. M., & Nunes Amaral, L. A. (2010). The role of mentorship in protégé performance. Nature, 465(7298), 622–626.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tu, L., Tai, W. C. S., Chen, L., & Banfield, D. K. (2008). Signal-mediated dynamic retention of glycosyltransferases in the Golgi. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 404–407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Institute of Timber Constr. (2012). Timber Construction Manual. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mozaffari, M. S. (Ed.). (2013). New Strategies to Advance Pre/Diabetes Care: Integrative Approach by PPPM (Vol. 3). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sabella, D., Caretti, M., Tomaselli, W., Palestini, V., Cendón, B., Valino, J., et al. (2012). Evaluation of ON-OFF Schemes and Linear Prediction Methods for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Mobile Broadband Networks. In Z. Becvar, R. Bestak, & L. Kencl (Eds.), NETWORKING 2012 Workshops: International IFIP TC 6 Workshops, ETICS, HetsNets, and CompNets, Held at NETWORKING 2012, Prague, Czech Republic, May 25, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 27–34). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 27). Stars Seen Forming Inside A Supermassive Black Hole’s Winds. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Battlefield Automation: Field Artillery Data Systems Acquisition Problems and Budget Impacts (No. NSIAD-89-95BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christiansen, L. M. (2009). The impact of high quality professional development on student achievement in the state of Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. (2003, December 7). It’s 8 O’Clock. Time for the Penguin to Explode. New York Times, p. 742.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Poliakoff and King 2001; Taylor 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poliakoff and King 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Tu et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleRenewables: Wind, Water, and Solar
ISSN (online)2198-994X

Other styles