How to format your references using the Experiments in Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experiments in Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weeks ER (2012) Materials science. Melting colloidal crystals from the inside out. Science 338:55–56
A journal article with 2 authors
Stoeckle MY, Coffran C (2013) TreeParser-aided Klee diagrams display taxonomic clusters in DNA barcode and nuclear gene datasets. Sci Rep 3:2635
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB (2005) A global call for new polio vaccines. Nature 434:699–700
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rosa PFS, Adriano C, Garitezi TM, et al (2014) Site specific spin dynamics in BaFe2As2: tuning the ground state by orbital differentiation. Sci Rep 4:6543

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry J-F, Brinzei N, Mazouni M-H (2016) Systems Dependability Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Qian H (2011) Intelligent Surveillance Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Bonapace T, Mikic M, Trade and Investment Division, ESCAP (2007) Asia-Pacific Regionalism Quo Vadis? Charting the Territory for New Integration Routes. In: Lombaerde P de (ed) Multilateralism, Regionalism and Bilateralism in Trade and Investment: 2006 World Report on Regional Integration. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 75–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experiments in Fluids.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) Galapagos Giant Tortoises Make A Comeback, Thanks To Innovative Conservation Strategies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Farmers Home Administration: Half-Billion Dollar ADP Modernization Lacks Adequate Planning and Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Legaspi J (2010) Accelerated supported employment program: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
THEODORE HERMANBONNIE BURKEDANIEL ROTHFRANKLIN L. TOWBERMARK ARONOFFKATHLEEN KELLY(Prof.) HOWARD A. SCARROWSTEPHEN JOEL TRACHTENBERG (1980) Letters; America’s Burden in the Afghanistan Crisis Impotence in the Face of Soviet Aggression Let Russian Commerce Have an Ice-Free Port Set for San Juan Hill? The Sounds Of Mandarin Sex and the Monarchy A Single-Issue Party’s Clout Errant Philanthropy. New York Times The Week In ReviewE20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weeks 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Weeks 2012; Stoeckle and Coffran 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stoeckle and Coffran 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rosa et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperiments in Fluids
AbbreviationExp. Fluids
ISSN (print)0723-4864
ISSN (online)1432-1114
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Computational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
General Physics and Astronomy

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