How to format your references using the Experiments in Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experiments in Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maquat LE (2002) Molecular biology. Skiing toward nonstop mRNA decay. Science 295:2221–2222
A journal article with 2 authors
Goonetilleke N, McMichael AJ (2013) Immunology. Antigen processing takes a new direction. Science 340:937–938
A journal article with 3 authors
Marhas KK, Goswami JN, Davis AM (2002) Short-lived nuclides in hibonite grains from Murchison: evidence for solar system evolution. Science 298:2182–2185
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Andersen JB, Rourke BC, Caiozzo VJ, et al (2005) Physiology: postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in pythons. Nature 434:37–38

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verma JP (2016) Sports Research with Analytical Solution Using SPSS®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Winkler D, Biffl S, Bergsmann J (eds) (2015) Software Quality. Software and Systems Quality in Distributed and Mobile Environments: 7th International Conference, SWQD 2015, Vienna, Austria, January 20-23, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Liñán F, Jaén I, Ortega FJ (2015) Understanding the Role of Culture and Economic Conditions in Entrepreneurship. In: Peris-Ortiz M, Merigó-Lindahl JM (eds) Entrepreneurship, Regional Development and Culture: An Institutional Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experiments in Fluids.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Evidence For The Earliest Oxygen-Producing Organisms Found In 3.4-BILLION-Year-Old Rocks. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Best Practices: Elements Critical to Successfully Reducing Unneeded RDT&E Infrastructure. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angell BD (2017) Transformational Innovation and Transformational Leadership in the U.S. Government Department of Defense Acquisitions Workforce. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1997) NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: MARINE PARK -- UPDATE ; Mariners Are Still Riding High. New York Times 1410

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maquat 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Maquat 2002; Goonetilleke and McMichael 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goonetilleke and McMichael 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Andersen et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperiments in Fluids
AbbreviationExp. Fluids
ISSN (print)0723-4864
ISSN (online)1432-1114
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Computational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles