How to format your references using the Experiments in Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experiments in Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter M (2000) EUROPEAN SCIENCE POLICY: France Rebels Against Gene-Patenting Law. Science 288:2115a
A journal article with 2 authors
Mochida S, Hunt T (2007) Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature 449:336–340
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang M-M, Zhang J, Miao D (2006) A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature 441:972–974
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Levison HF, Morbidelli A, Dones L, et al (2002) The mass disruption of Oort cloud comets. Science 296:2212–2215

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson JB (2017) Bandwidth Efficient Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Besley T (ed) (2016) Contemporary Issues in Development Economics. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Blankenship J, Bussa M, Millett S (2011) Sprint 1: Starting a Game. In: Bussa M, Millett S (eds) Pro Agile .NET Development with Scrum. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 87–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experiments in Fluids.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Ant Fight! Dopamine Turns Workers Into Queens. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Cuban Embargo: Selected Issues Relating to Travel, Exports, and Telecommunications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett CA (2012) The stigma of mental illness as experienced by mental health professionals as patients: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Fatal Blows: Kind to the Planet, Not to Bats. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000; Mochida and Hunt 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mochida and Hunt 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Levison et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperiments in Fluids
AbbreviationExp. Fluids
ISSN (print)0723-4864
ISSN (online)1432-1114
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Computational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles