How to format your references using the Experiments in Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experiments in Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Hur K (2015) Condensed-matter physics: Quantum dots and the Kondo effect. Nature 526:203–204
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunnschweiler CN, Bulte EH (2008) Economics. Linking natural resources to slow growth and more conflict. Science 320:616–617
A journal article with 3 authors
Prahlad V, Pilgrim D, Goodwin EB (2003) Roles for mating and environment in C. elegans sex determination. Science 302:1046–1049
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Samaha H, Pignata A, Fousek K, et al (2018) A homing system targets therapeutic T cells to brain cancer. Nature 561:331–337

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumacher L (2011) Divine Illumination. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Lopes L, Žilinskas J, Costan A, et al (eds) (2014) Euro-Par 2014: Parallel Processing Workshops: Euro-Par 2014 International Workshops, Porto, Portugal, August 25-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Armellin G, Betti D, Casati F, et al (2010) Privacy Preserving Event Driven Integration for Interoperating Social and Health Systems. In: Jonker W, Petković M (eds) Secure Data Management: 7th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2010, Singapore, September 17, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 54–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experiments in Fluids.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Researchers Achieve Record-Smashing Wireless Connection Speeds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Pell Grants for Prison Inmates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrett BT (2015) Modernizing Copyright for Equitable Treatment in the Streaming Age. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A (2014) A Play Is Set in a Hospital, in Two Ways. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Le Hur 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brunnschweiler and Bulte 2008; Le Hur 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brunnschweiler and Bulte 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Samaha et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperiments in Fluids
AbbreviationExp. Fluids
ISSN (print)0723-4864
ISSN (online)1432-1114
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Computational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles