How to format your references using the Experiments in Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experiments in Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blinkhorn S (2001) Yes, but what’s it for? Nature 412:771
A journal article with 2 authors
Shin JS, Abraham SN (2001) Cell biology. Caveolae--not just craters in the cellular landscape. Science 293:1447–1448
A journal article with 3 authors
Papp B, Pál C, Hurst LD (2004) Metabolic network analysis of the causes and evolution of enzyme dispensability in yeast. Nature 429:661–664
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Steinmetz LM, Sinha H, Richards DR, et al (2002) Dissecting the architecture of a quantitative trait locus in yeast. Nature 416:326–330

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radwanska M, Stankiewicz A, Wosatko A, Pamin J (2017) Plate and Shell Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ruairc GM (2013) Leadership for Inclusive Education: Values, Vision and Voices. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Yusof F (2015) Purification of Recombinant Protein for Industrial Use. In: Amid A (ed) Recombinant Enzymes - From Basic Science to Commercialization. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 61–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experiments in Fluids.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Watch Diver Fend Off Sea Lion Attack. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Federal Agencies’ Contracting for Research and Development in the Private, Profitmaking Sector. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poland MC (2010) New cluster-based routing and multi-channel MAC protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S (2016) Leaving Carrie Behind. New York Times AR1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blinkhorn 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Blinkhorn 2001; Shin and Abraham 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shin and Abraham 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Steinmetz et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperiments in Fluids
AbbreviationExp. Fluids
ISSN (print)0723-4864
ISSN (online)1432-1114
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Computational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
General Physics and Astronomy

Other styles