How to format your references using the European Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chaddah P. Not all plagiarism requires a retraction. Nature 2014;511:127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Willis KJ, Birks HJB. What is natural? The need for a long-term perspective in biodiversity conservation. Science 2006;314:1261–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poinar H, Kuch M, Pääbo S. Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples. Science 2001;292:743–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Takahashi H, Igawa K, Arii K, Kamihara Y, Hirano M, Hosono H. Superconductivity at 43 K in an iron-based layered compound LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs. Nature 2008;453:376–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman D. Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2005.
An edited book
Afsarmanesh H, Camarinha-Matos LM, Lucas Soares A, editors. Collaboration in a Hyperconnected World: 17th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2016, Porto, Portugal, October 3-5, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Knoepffler N, O’Malley M. Ethical Aspects. In: Rustemeyer T, Elsner P, John S-M, Maibach HI, eds. Kanerva’s Occupational Dermatology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2012. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Amazing Footage Of Volcanic Eruption Shot From A Drone. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Troops-To-Teachers: Program Brings More Men and Minorities to the Teaching Workforce, but Education Could Improve Management to Enhance Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowles A. The development of a standard of care for competency to stand trial evaluations. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. New Nets Announcer Shows Flair and Hair. New York Times. 2011;:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationEur. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0969-9546
ISSN (online)1473-5695
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles