How to format your references using the European Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gursky H. X-ray astronomy-40 years on. Science 2002;297:1485–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiessling LL, Kraft MB. Chemistry. A path to complex carbohydrates. Science 2013;341:357–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muchnik L, Aral S, Taylor SJ. Social influence bias: a randomized experiment. Science 2013;341:647–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nauta K, Moore DT, Stiles PL, Miller RE. Probing the structure of metal cluster-adsorbate systems with high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. Science 2001;292:481–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschirhart M, Bielefeld W. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.
An edited book
Ahsanullah M. Normal and Student´s t Distributions and Their Applications. Paris: Atlantis Press 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Green B. My Deakin Days. In: Tinning R, Sirna K, eds. Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora. Rotterdam: SensePublishers 2011. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Information Flows In Opposite Directions During Imagination And Reality. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Launch System: Resources Need to be Matched to Requirements to Decrease Risk and Support Long Term Affordability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vidal EM. Alcohol disorder with hip or knee surgery: Postoperative alcohol disorder-related costs and length of stay. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Irving J. It Takes a Commune. New York Times. 2017;:BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationEur. J. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)0969-9546
ISSN (online)1473-5695
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles