How to format your references using the Experimental Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisher DE (2000) Secret to marital bliss? Science 290:936b
A journal article with 2 authors
Sandoval DA, Seeley RJ (2010) Medicine. The microbes made me eat it. Science 328:179–180
A journal article with 3 authors
Wahl ER, Ritson DM, Ammann CM (2006) Comment on “Reconstructing past climate from noisy data.” Science 312:529; author reply 529
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Raya A, Kawakami Y, Rodríguez-Esteban C, et al (2004) Notch activity acts as a sensor for extracellular calcium during vertebrate left-right determination. Nature 427:121–128

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisswanger H (2005) Enzymkinetik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Malmgren K, Baxendale S, Cross JH (2015) Long-Term Outcomes of Epilepsy Surgery in Adults and Children. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Heun MK, Carbajales-Dale M, Haney BR (2015) Flows of Direct Energy. In: Carbajales-Dale M, Haney BR (eds) Beyond GDP: National Accounting in the Age of Resource Depletion. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Techniques.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Volcano May Be Erupting Off The Coast Of The USA. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Embedded Computer Systems: Software Development Problems Delay the Army’s Fire Direction Data Manager. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts JE (2010) Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Howe SH (1904) Mandan Territory. New York Times REVIEW OF BOOKSBR642

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Techniques
AbbreviationExp. Tech.
ISSN (print)0732-8818
ISSN (online)1747-1567
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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