How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chun J. Immunology. The sources of a lipid conundrum. Science 2007;316:208–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray RA, Wikswo JP. Cardiovascular disease: several small shocks beat one big one. Nature 2011;475:181–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
McMichael AJ, Butler CD, Folke C. New visions for addressing sustainability. Science 2003;302:1919–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nedimović MR, Carbotte SM, Harding AJ, Detrick RS, Canales JP, Diebold JB, et al. Frozen magma lenses below the oceanic crust. Nature 2005;436:1149–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bass F. Guide to the Census. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Zieliński M, Rami-Porta R, editors. The Transcervical Approach in Thoracic Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Nesterenko MV, Katrich VA, Penkin YM, Berdnik SL. Electromagnetic Waves Scattering by Irregular Impedance Vibrators in Free Space. In: Katrich VA, Penkin YM, Dakhov VM, Berdnik SL, editors. Thin Impedance Vibrators: Theory and Applications, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 93–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Human Brain Makes Fructose, Researchers Discover – Here’s Why That Might Be A Big Deal. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: State Department Led Overseas Modernization Program Faces Management Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller C. Assembly and analysis of an Sp185/333 gene cluster from the purple sea urchin: Putative evidence for microsatellite-mediated gene and segmental duplication. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Distance Learning: RussiaIs Reaching Out. New York Times 2001:4A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition
AbbreviationClin. Nutr.
ISSN (print)0261-5614
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Nutrition and Dietetics

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