How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hasinger G. Peeking into the obscured universe. Nature 2000;404:443, 445–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet EG, Chappellaz J. Atmospheric science. Shifting gear, quickly. Science 2009;324:477–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goncharov AF, Struzhkin VV, Jacobsen SD. Reduced radiative conductivity of low-spin (Mg,Fe)O in the lower mantle. Science 2006;312:1205–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Unal E, Heidinger-Pauli JM, Kim W, Guacci V, Onn I, Gygi SP, et al. A molecular determinant for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Science 2008;321:566–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perlmutter DD, Rothstein RL. The Challenge of Climate Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Utsumi R, editor. Bacterial Signal Transduction: Networks and Drug Targets. vol. 631. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Neby S. Marketization and Accountability: Lessons from the Reforming Norwegian Healthcare System. In: Mattei P, editor. Public Accountability and Health Care Governance: Public Management Reforms Between Austerity and Democracy, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 65–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2/3 Of “Gluten Sensitive” People Can’t Tell The Difference Between Foods With Gluten And Foods Without Gluten. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Abatement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nevin MJ. Addressing the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods Associated with Participation in Student Government Associations: A Qualitative Study of California Community Colleges. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gabler E, Dougherty C. Woman ‘Madly in Love’ With the Gunman Says She Was Unaware of His Plans. New York Times 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition
AbbreviationClin. Nutr.
ISSN (print)0261-5614
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Nutrition and Dietetics

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