How to format your references using the Experimental Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soled S. CATALYSIS. Silica-supported catalysts get a new breath of life. Science 2015: 350: 1171–1172.
A journal article with 2 authors
Häkkinen S, Rhines P B. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s. Science 2004: 304: 555–559.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hummer G, Rasaiah J C, Noworyta J P. Water conduction through the hydrophobic channel of a carbon nanotube. Nature 2001: 414: 188–190.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu Y, Hu X, Yang H et al. On-chip plasmon-induced transparency based on plasmonic coupled nanocavities. Sci Rep 2014: 4: 3752.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg S M. Cost Reduction Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Molecular Machines Involved in Peroxisome Biogenesis and Maintenance. Vienna: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zangaro W, Rondina A B L. Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Different Successional Stages in Some Brazilian Ecosystems. In: Pagano MC, ed. Recent Advances on Mycorrhizal Fungi. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Red, Yellow, Pink And Green: How The World’s Languages Name The Rainbow [Internet]. IFLScience 2016: [cited 2018 Oct 30] DOI:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodard J. Emergent properties. 2012:

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M. Business Leaders Urge Trump to Keep Shield in Place. New York Times 2017: : A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Dermatology
AbbreviationExp. Dermatol.
ISSN (print)0906-6705
ISSN (online)1600-0625
Molecular Biology

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