How to format your references using the Experimental and Molecular Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental and Molecular Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackinnon, R., 2005. Structural biology. Membrane protein insertion and stability. Science 307, 1425–1426.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teague, B.P., Weiss, R., 2015. SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. Synthetic communities, the sum of parts. Science 349, 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Czaplicka, A., Holyst, J.A., Sloot, P.M.A., 2013. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 1223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blanco, M.B., Dausmann, K.H., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Yoder, A.D., 2013. Underground hibernation in a primate. Sci. Rep. 3, 1768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne, C., Robert-Inacio, F., Macaire, L., 2012. Digital Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Ayache, N., Ourselin, S., Maeder, A. (Eds.), 2007. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2007: 10th International Conference, Brisbane, Australia, October 29 - November 2, 2007, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, W., Zhan, C., Hou, H., 2014. Targeted Liposomes and Micelles as Carriers for Cancer Therapy, in: Alonso, M.J., Garcia-Fuentes, M. (Eds.), Nano-Oncologicals: New Targeting and Delivery Approaches, Advances in Delivery Science and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 95–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental and Molecular Pathology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2011. Minor Planets Can Gain Rings When Larger Worlds Tear Them Apart [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Commuter Rail: Potential Impacts and Cost Estimates for the Cancelled Hudson River Tunnel Project (No. GAO-12-344). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, J.Y., 2008. Socio-Spatial Exclusion Based on Human Activities and Social Networks in Space-Time: A Case Study of Koreans in Columbus, Ohio (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. For Men’s Title Match, Fans Reach Deep Into Their Pockets. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mackinnon, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mackinnon, 2005; Teague and Weiss, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teague and Weiss, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Blanco et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental and Molecular Pathology
AbbreviationExp. Mol. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0014-4800
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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