How to format your references using the Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D. (2010). World view: Missing weapons. Nature, 464(7289), 672.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merikangas, K. R., & Risch, N. (2003). Genomic priorities and public health. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5645), 599–601.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salvadori, M. R., Nascimento, C. A. O., & Corrêa, B. (2014). Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus. Scientific Reports, 4, 6404.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fujita, S., Yamanoi, S., Murata, K., Mita, H., Samukawa, T., Nakagawa, T., Sakai, H., & Tokita, Y. (2014). A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode. Scientific Reports, 4, 4937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rouse, W. B. (2016). Universities as Complex Enterprises. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fitzal, F., & Schrenk, P. (Eds.). (2010). Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Guide to Clinical Practice. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Morozov, M., Gerasimov, A., Fominykh, M., & Smorkalov, A. (2013). Asynchronous Immersive Classes in a 3D Virtual World: Extended Description of vAcademia. In M. L. Gavrilova, C. J. K. Tan, & A. Kuijper (Eds.), Transactions on Computational Science XVIII: Special Issue on Cyberworlds (pp. 81–100). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 18). Magic Mushrooms Shown To Ease Severe Depression In Groundbreaking Study. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Space Station: Status of Russian Involvement and Cost Control Efforts (T-NSIAD-99-117). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck, B. S. (2012). Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ford Fessenden; Kate, & Reporting, L. S. C. (2007, April 8). Long Island Aid Comes at Westchester’s Expense. New York Times, 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Merikangas & Risch, 2003; Sarewitz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merikangas & Risch, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Salvadori et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fujita et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
AbbreviationExp. Clin. Psychopharmacol.
ISSN (print)1064-1297
ISSN (online)1936-2293
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health

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