How to format your references using the EXCLI Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EXCLI Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith C. Drug discovery in reverse. Nature. 2004;428:227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greif DM, Eichmann A. Vascular biology: Brain vessels squeezed to death. Nature. 2014;508:50–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu S, Shima T, Hou Z. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride. Nature. 2014;512:413–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lv X, Jiang H, Li B, Liang Q, Wang S, Zhao Q, et al. The crucial role of Atg5 in cortical neurogenesis during early brain development. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jensen RC. Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Lu JJ, Brady LW, editors. Decision Making in Radiation Oncology: Volume 2. 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. (Medical Radiology; vol. 0).
A chapter in an edited book
McGinty S. From the Boardroom to the Corner Store: Globalization, Law and Economic Organization. In: Fenwick M, Wrbka S, editors. Flexibility in Modern Business Law: A Comparative Assessment. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EXCLI Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. Lost In Translation: Five Common English Phrases You May Be Using Incorrectly. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. James Webb Space Telescope: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Estimate and Oversight of Test and Integration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Dec. Report No.: GAO-13-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen HT. The Songs of Lori Laitman: An Analysis of Sunflowers and Early Snow [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. When Loss Means Disappointment, Not Disaster. New York Times. 2010;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2004; Greif and Eichmann 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greif and Eichmann 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lv et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEXCLI Journal
ISSN (online)1611-2156

Other styles