How to format your references using the EXCLI Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EXCLI Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway E. Transmission: Control issues. Nature. 2013;502:S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fienberg SE, Prewitt K. Save your census. Nature. 2010;466:1043.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malakoff D, Yeston J, Smith J. Getting better to get bigger. Science. 2010;329:779.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Arthur JC, Gharaibeh RZ, Uronis JM, Perez-Chanona E, Sha W, Tomkovich S, et al. VSL#3 probiotic modifies mucosal microbial composition but does not reduce colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davidson PW, Prasher VP, Janicki MP. Mental Health, Intellectual Disabilities, and the Aging Process. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Hameurlain A, Hussain FK, Morvan F, Tjoa AM, editors. Data Management in Cloud, Grid and P2P Systems: 5th International Conference, Globe 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 5-6, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7450).
A chapter in an edited book
Brinkworth JF, Sterner KN. Toll-Like Receptor Function and Evolution in Primates. In: Brinkworth JF, Pechenkina K, editors. Primates, Pathogens, and Evolution. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 91–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EXCLI Journal.

Blog post
Taub B. Tortoise Gets A Set Of Wheels After Injuring Legs Having Sex. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017. accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Teen Driver Safety: Additional Research Could Help States Strengthen Graduated Driver Licensing Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 May. Report No.: GAO-10-544.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brigida MD. Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. A Plea for Robot Rights. New York Times. 2017;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Callaway 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fienberg and Prewitt 2010; Callaway 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fienberg and Prewitt 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Arthur et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEXCLI Journal
ISSN (online)1611-2156

Other styles