How to format your references using the EXCLI Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EXCLI Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berkman PA. International spaces promote peace. Nature. 2009;462:412–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lamb S, Davis P. Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes. Nature. 2003;425:792–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiteman G, Hope C, Wadhams P. Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature. 2013;499:401–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Scanlon TM, Caylor KK, Levin SA, Rodriguez-Iturbe I. Positive feedbacks promote power-law clustering of Kalahari vegetation. Nature. 2007;449:209–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCall MW. Classical Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Cherny AS. Singular Stochastic Differential Equations. Engelbert H-J, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; vol. 1858).
A chapter in an edited book
Mihara H, Hayashi Y, Yamamoto M. Performance Evaluation of Fairness between High-Speed TCPs in Wireless Environment. In: Guyot V, editor. Advanced Infocomm Technology: 5th IEEE International Conference, ICAIT 2012, Paris, France, July 25-27, 2012 Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 5–15. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EXCLI Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. Does Taking Antidepressants During Pregnancy Harm The Child? Here Are The Facts. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Many Proprietary Schools Do Not Comply With Department of Education’s Pell Grant Program Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 Aug. Report No.: HRD-84-17.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quiros PQ. SNR estimation and jamming detection techniques using wavelets [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland R, Timur S. Turkey Fires 15,000 More Public Workers in Crackdown. New York Times. 2016;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berkman 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lamb and Davis 2003; Berkman 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lamb and Davis 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Scanlon et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEXCLI Journal
ISSN (online)1611-2156

Other styles