How to format your references using the Evolving Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolving Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morris P (2013) Joseph E. Murray (1919-2012). Nature 493:164
A journal article with 2 authors
Kourra CMBK, Cramer N (2015) Catalysis: Gold unleashes the power of three. Nature 517:440–441
A journal article with 3 authors
Feng S, Jacobsen SE, Reik W (2010) Epigenetic reprogramming in plant and animal development. Science 330:622–627
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Anderson WA, Banerjee U, Drennan CL, et al (2011) Science education. Changing the culture of science education at research universities. Science 331:152–153

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diamond D (2015) Trading as a Business. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Vovk V, Papadopoulos H, Gammerman A (eds) (2015) Measures of Complexity: Festschrift for Alexey Chervonenkis, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Meershoek G (2016) The Dutch Police and the Explosion of Violence in the Early 1980s. In: Campion J, Rousseaux X (eds) Policing New Risks in Modern European History. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 86–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolving Systems.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) White Roofs Cut Energy Consumption In Cool Climates Too. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) High-Quality Senior Marine Corps Officers: How Many Stay Beyond 20 Years of Service? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grimpo M (2014) How asthma is related with the rate of influenza vaccination in California’s children. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P, Shear MD (2017) President Shifts Rationale For Firing F.B.I. Director, Calling Him a ‘Showboat.’ New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morris 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Morris 2013; Kourra and Cramer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kourra and Cramer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Anderson et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolving Systems
ISSN (print)1868-6478
ISSN (online)1868-6486
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization
Modelling and Simulation

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