How to format your references using the Evolving Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolving Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moro-Martín A (2012) Spanish changes are scientific suicide. Nature 482:277
A journal article with 2 authors
Casillas CE, Kammen DM (2010) Environment and development. The energy-poverty-climate nexus. Science 330:1181–1182
A journal article with 3 authors
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos M, Sakbodin M, Wang Z (2006) Regenerative adsorption and removal of H2S from hot fuel gas streams by rare earth oxides. Science 312:1508–1510
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Metrangolo P, Carcenac Y, Lahtinen M, et al (2009) Nonporous organic solids capable of dynamically resolving mixtures of diiodoperfluoroalkanes. Science 323:1461–1464

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boddy R, Smith G (2010) Effective Experimentation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Calude CS, Sassone V (eds) (2010) Theoretical Computer Science: 6th IFIP TC 1/WG 2.2 International Conference, TCS 2010, Held as Part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Barney HT, Aurum A, Low GC, Wang K (2013) Investigating Post-outsourcing Decisions: Using the Intellectual Capital View. In: Linger H, Fisher J, Barnden A, et al. (eds) Building Sustainable Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Systems Development. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 63–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolving Systems.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) The Hobbit Took Our Breath Away: Now It’s The New Normal. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Immigration Benefits System: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Can Improve Program Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayer EW (2013) An N-gram enhanced learning classifier for Chinese character recognition. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M, Walsh MW (2015) Treasury Considers Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moro-Martín 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Casillas and Kammen 2010; Moro-Martín 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casillas and Kammen 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Metrangolo et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolving Systems
ISSN (print)1868-6478
ISSN (online)1868-6486
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles