How to format your references using the Evolving Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolving Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pagel M (2008) Rise of the digital machine. Nature 452:699
A journal article with 2 authors
Le Goff L, Lecuit T (2009) Developmental biology. Phase transition in a cell. Science 324:1654–1655
A journal article with 3 authors
Budday S, Raybaud C, Kuhl E (2014) A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain. Sci Rep 4:5644
A journal article with 5 or more authors
DeMaria CD, Soong TW, Alseikhan BA, et al (2001) Calmodulin bifurcates the local Ca2+ signal that modulates P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Nature 411:484–489

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seyfried TN (2012) Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Balogh A, Bykov A, Eastwood J, Kaastra J (eds) (2016) Multi-scale Structure Formation and Dynamics in Cosmic Plasmas, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Sheng Y, Welling WS, Zhu MM (2015) GPU-Accelerated Computing with Gibbs Sampler for the 2PNO IRT Model. In: van der Ark LA, Bolt DM, Wang W-C, et al. (eds) Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Madison, Wisconsin, 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolving Systems.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Check Out These Amazing Artworks Created With Microbes In A Petri Dish. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham OB (2017) The Chiron Complex: From Spiritual Bypassing to Individuation. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) Justices Weigh Whether Railroad Retaliated Against Worker. New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pagel 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Pagel 2008; Le Goff and Lecuit 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Le Goff and Lecuit 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (DeMaria et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolving Systems
ISSN (print)1868-6478
ISSN (online)1868-6486
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles