How to format your references using the Evolving Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolving Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris J (2009) Soil microbial communities and restoration ecology: facilitators or followers? Science 325:573–574
A journal article with 2 authors
Belcher CM, McElwain JC (2008) Limits for combustion in low O2 redefine paleoatmospheric predictions for the Mesozoic. Science 321:1197–1200
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM (2001) Transmission intensity and impact of control policies on the foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. Nature 413:542–548
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lim B, Jiang M, Camargo PHC, et al (2009) Pd-Pt bimetallic nanodendrites with high activity for oxygen reduction. Science 324:1302–1305

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perrin V (2013) MRI Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Mitrokotsa A, Vaudenay S (eds) (2012) Progress in Cryptology - AFRICACRYPT 2012: 5th International Conference on Cryptology in Africa, Ifrance, Morocco, July 10-12, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Altalag A, Road J, Wilcox P (2009) Bronchial Challenge Testing. In: Road J, Altalag A (eds) Pulmonary Function Tests in Clinical Practice. Springer, London, pp 71–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolving Systems.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Scientists Have Turned Spinach Into A Bomb Detector. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Automated Information Systems: Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thixton HL (2017) Identification of Site-Specific Mycorrhizal Fungi Associates of the Federally Threatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) in Illinois. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2006) The Dog Wants to Go Out. Subversive Action Is Likely to Follow. New York Times 14LI12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harris 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Belcher and McElwain 2008; Harris 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belcher and McElwain 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lim et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolving Systems
ISSN (print)1868-6478
ISSN (online)1868-6486
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles