How to format your references using the Frontiers in Environmental Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Environmental Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boulton, G. (2012). Open your minds and share your results. Nature 486, 441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, L., and Ye, H. (2014). How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows. Sci. Rep. 4, 6427.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, M. W., Thacker, R. W., and Hentschel, U. (2007). Genetics. Evolutionary insights from sponges. Science 316, 1854–1855.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rodrigo-Navarro, A., Rico, P., Saadeddin, A., Garcia, A. J., and Salmeron-Sanchez, M. (2014). Living biointerfaces based on non-pathogenic bacteria to direct cell differentiation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tolin, D. F., Worden, B. L., Wootton, B. M., and Gilliam, C. M. (2017). CBT for Hoarding Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Seeling, P. (2007). Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation: A Comprehensive Overview and Guide on Video Traces and Their Utilization in Networking Research. , eds. F. H. P. Fitzek and M. Reisslein Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Weinberg, V., Brehm, M., and Christadler, I. (2010). “OMI4papps: Optimisation, Modelling and Implementation for Highly Parallel Applications,” in High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering, Garching/Munich 2009: Transactions of the Fourth Joint HLRB and KONWIHR Review and Results Workshop, Dec. 8-9, 2009, Leibniz Supercomputing Centre, Garching/Munich, Germany, eds. S. Wagner, M. Steinmetz, A. Bode, and M. M. Müller (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Environmental Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). This 104-Year-Old Cyclist Is Beating The Science Of Aging. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). ADP Planning: Challenges at the U.S. Transportation Command. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olsen, C. M. (2009). A violinist in a non-classical world: Sugizo’s use of violin in popular music.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pareles, J., Ratliff, B., Caramanica, J., Chinen, N., Holden, S., Coscarelli, J., et al. (2016). New Chapters From Our Pop Dreams. New York Times, AR109.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boulton, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Boulton, 2012; Long and Ye, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Ye, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rodrigo-Navarro et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Environmental Science
AbbreviationFront. Environ. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-665X

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