How to format your references using the Frontiers in Environmental Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Environmental Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korte, M. (2008). Neuroscience. A protoplasmic kiss to remember. Science 319, 1627–1628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jing, J., and Wu, L.-A. (2013). Control of decoherence with no control. Sci. Rep. 3, 2746.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paggi, M., Pohrt, R., and Popov, V. L. (2014). Partial-slip frictional response of rough surfaces. Sci. Rep. 4, 5178.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hundley, H. A., Walter, W., Bairstow, S., and Craig, E. A. (2005). Human Mpp11 J protein: ribosome-tethered molecular chaperones are ubiquitous. Science 308, 1032–1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sengupta, D. L., and Liepa, V. V. (2005). Applied Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alonzo, A. C., and Gotwals, A. W. eds. (2012). Learning Progressions in Science: Current Challenges and Future Directions. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Pelcat, M., Aridhi, S., Piat, J., and Nezan, J.-F. (2013). “Rapid Prototyping and Programming Multi-Core Architectures,” in Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering., eds. S. Aridhi, J. Piat, and J.-F. Nezan (London: Springer), 77–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Environmental Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Police Use DNA To Create “Sketch” Of Suspected Murderer. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Higher Education: Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Programs and Related Trends. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, S. R. (2009). Freshman transition programs: Effect on ninth grade student preparedness.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R., and Schmitt, E. (2017). Defying Turkey, U.S. Will Arm Kurds in Syria. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Korte, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Jing and Wu, 2013; Korte, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jing and Wu, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hundley et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Environmental Science
AbbreviationFront. Environ. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-665X

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