How to format your references using the Frontiers in Environmental Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Environmental Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ballschmiter, K. (2002). Atmospheric chemistry. A marine source for alkyl nitrates. Science 297, 1127–1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vollmer, D., and Butt, H.-J. (2015). Materials science: Droplets leap into action. Nature 527, 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer, C. A., Stevenson, D. J., and Nimmo, F. (2011). A long-lived lunar dynamo driven by continuous mechanical stirring. Nature 479, 212–214.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu, P., Kang, L., Mack, N. H., Schanze, K. S., Han, X., and Wang, H.-L. (2013). Mechanistic understanding of surface plasmon assisted catalysis on a single particle: cyclic redox of 4-aminothiophenol. Sci. Rep. 3, 2997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, M., and Krämer, N. (2016). Hygiene in der Arzneimittelproduktion. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Padilla, A. (2011). Pro PHP Application Performance: Tuning PHP Web Projects for Maximum Performance. , ed. T. Hawkins Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Maskat, R., Paton, N. W., and Embury, S. M. (2012). “Pay-as-You-Go Ranking of Schema Mappings Using Query Logs,” in Data Integration in the Life Sciences: 8th International Conference, DILS 2012, College Park, MD, USA, June 28-29, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. O. Bodenreider and B. Rance (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 37–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Environmental Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Is There A Planet X? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970). Expenditure of Federal Funds by Timberlane Regional High School District, New Hampshire. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoefer, P. D. (2010). A David against Goliath: The American veterans committee’s challenge to the American legion in the 1950s.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016). More College Rankings, More Confusing Results. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ballschmiter, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ballschmiter, 2002; Vollmer and Butt, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vollmer and Butt, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Environmental Science
AbbreviationFront. Environ. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-665X

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