How to format your references using the Frontiers in Environmental Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Environmental Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duan, L.-M. (2011). Physics. Quantum correlation between distant diamonds. Science 334, 1213–1214.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, M. K., and Liu, X. (2009). Archaeology. Origins of agriculture in East Asia. Science 324, 730–731.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, G. Z., Fray, D. J., and Farthing, T. W. (2000). Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride. Nature 407, 361–364.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kodama, K., Takigawa, M., Horvatić, M., Berthier, C., Kageyama, H., Ueda, Y., et al. (2002). Magnetic superstructure in the two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet SrCu2(BO3)2. Science 298, 395–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroupa, V. F. (2005). Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hetnarski, R. B. (2009). Thermal Stresses – Advanced Theory and Applications. , ed. M. R. Eslami Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Carrascosa, C., Terrasa, A., García-Fornes, A., Espinosa, A., and Botti, V. (2006). “A Meta-Reasoning Model for Hard Real-Time Agents,” in Current Topics in Artificial Intelligence: 11th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2005, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, November 16-18, 2005, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. R. Marín, E. Onaindía, A. Bugarín, and J. Santos (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Environmental Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). South Pacific Islanders Probably Used Volcanic Glass To Make Tattoos 3,000 Years Ago. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Highway Trust Fund: Strategies for Safeguarding Highway Financing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tofthagen, C. S. (2008). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J., and Eddy, M. (2016). E.U. Official Apologizes For Comments On Chinese. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duan, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Duan, 2011; Jones and Liu, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Liu, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kodama et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Environmental Science
AbbreviationFront. Environ. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-665X

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