How to format your references using the Frontiers in Environmental Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Environmental Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu, P. (2007). Indian biotech’s bumpy road. Nature 450, 580–581.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santner, A., and Estelle, M. (2009). Recent advances and emerging trends in plant hormone signalling. Nature 459, 1071–1078.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anuar, T. S., Salleh, F. M., and Moktar, N. (2014). Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia. Sci. Rep. 4, 4101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bouillard, J.-S., Segovia, P., Dickson, W., Wurtz, G. A., and Zayats, A. V. (2014). Shaping plasmon beams via the controlled illumination of finite-size plasmonic crystals. Sci. Rep. 4, 7234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli, R. J., Waddell, J. M., and Rahschulte, T. J. (2014). Program Management for Improved Business Results. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Appice, A., Rodrigues, P. P., Santos Costa, V., Soares, C., Gama, J., and Jorge, A. eds. (2015). Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2015, Porto, Portugal, September 7-11, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Agadzanyan, R., and Freivalds, R. (2010). “Finite State Transducers with Intuition,” in Unconventional Computation: 9th International Conference, US 2010, Tokyo, Japan, June 21-25, 2010. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. C. S. Calude, M. Hagiya, K. Morita, G. Rozenberg, and J. Timmis (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 11–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Environmental Science.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015). Why Are People So Curious? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Railroad Safety--Responses to Posthearing Questions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diaz, D. (2015). A discrete hollow—Los Angeles.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2003). A Prosperous Russian City Is Also Fatal for Journalists. New York Times, A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basu, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Basu, 2007; Santner and Estelle, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santner and Estelle, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouillard et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Environmental Science
AbbreviationFront. Environ. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-665X

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