How to format your references using the DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Adams WM. Conservation. The value of valuing nature. Science. 2014;346:549–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Elderfield H, Ganssen G. Past temperature and delta18O of surface ocean waters inferred from foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios. Nature. 2000;405:442–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kaiser SM, Malik HS, Emerman M. Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein. Science. 2007;316:1756–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Belle MDC, Diekman CO, Forger DB, Piggins HD. Daily electrical silencing in the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 2009;326:281–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Soustelle M. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
1. Monti MM, Sannita WG, editors. Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lang A, Dittmann J, Kiltz S, Hoppe T. Future Perspectives: The Car and Its IP-Address – A Potential Safety and Security Risk Assessment. In: Saglietti F, Oster N, editors. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 26th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2007, Nuremberg, Germany, September 18-21, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 40–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. African Scientists A Step Closer To Testing For TB In A Matter Of Minutes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Montana’s Medical Assistance Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Oct. Report No.: HEHS-96-12R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Proser M. Ingredients for Optimal Care: Exploring Factors Associated with Patient Quality Outcomes among Federally-Qualified Health Centers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Yankees Trade McCann to the Astros. New York Times. 2016 Nov 18;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN (online)2008-2231

Other styles