How to format your references using the Evolution: Education and Outreach citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution: Education and Outreach. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Worm B. ECOLOGY. A most unusual (super)predator. Science. 2015 Aug 21;349(6250):784–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang K-Q, Liu XY. In situ observation of colloidal monolayer nucleation driven by an alternating electric field. Nature. 2004 Jun 17;429(6993):739–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudley AT, Ros MA, Tabin CJ. A re-examination of proximodistal patterning during vertebrate limb development. Nature. 2002 Aug 1;418(6897):539–44.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mitro N, Mak PA, Vargas L, Godio C, Hampton E, Molteni V, et al. The nuclear receptor LXR is a glucose sensor. Nature. 2007 Jan 11;445(7124):219–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Rocha A, Correia AM, Costanzo S, Reis LP, editors. New Contributions in Information Systems and Technologies: Volume 1. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Xanthopoulos G, Calfapietra C, Fernandes P. Fire Hazard and Flammability of European Forest Types. In: Moreira F, Arianoutsou M, Corona P, De las Heras J, editors. Post-Fire Management and Restoration of Southern European Forests. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 79–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution: Education and Outreach.

Blog post
Fang J. Ferocious Extinct Fox Fossils Found In Tibet [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Uncertainties in the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program Pose Management and Oversight Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1039.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan A. The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Watching Neo-Nazis in Virginia, From Germany. New York Times. 2017 Aug 16;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Worm 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Worm 2015; Zhang and Liu 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Liu 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mitro et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution: Education and Outreach
AbbreviationEvolution (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1936-6426
ISSN (online)1936-6434

Other styles