How to format your references using the Fine Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fine Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. 2003. Agent Orange health investigation stuck at square one. Nature. 422:793.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin CD, Chu W-C. 2013. Physics. Controlling atomic line shapes. Science. 340:694–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lev M, Yehezkel O, Polat U. 2014. Uncovering foveal crowding? Sci. Rep. 4:4067.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Terrón-González L, Medina C, Limón-Mortés MC, Santero E. 2013. Heterologous viral expression systems in fosmid vectors increase the functional analysis potential of metagenomic libraries. Sci. Rep. 3:1107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Permyakov EA, Kretsinger RH. 2010. Calcium Binding Proteins. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Watson RR, Preedy VR, Zibadi S, eds. 2013. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. XVI, 309 p. 29 illus., 15 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Błocki Z. 2014. A Lower Bound for the Bergman Kernel and the Bourgain-Milman Inequality. In Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar (GAFA) 2011-2013, ed B Klartag, E Milman, pp. 53–63. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fine Focus.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017. Oxygen Levels In The Ocean Have Dropped Due To Climate Change. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Army ADP: Prevalence of Fourth Quarter Obligations. IMTEC-91-12, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yahyai S. 2013. Optimization of a method for testing ballast water for enterococci and an investigation on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in vibrio cholerae. Doctoral dissertation thesis. University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Almosawa S, Hubbard B. 2016. Blast ‘So Vile’ It Could Alter War in Yemen. New York Times, Oct. 10, p. A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 5, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleFine Focus
ISSN (print)2381-0637

Other styles