How to format your references using the Fine Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fine Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
French C. 2010. Archaeology. People, societies, and landscapes. Science. 328:443–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
Munshi NV, Olson EN. 2014. Translational medicine. Improving cardiac rhythm with a biological pacemaker. Science. 345:268–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinrichs K-U, Hmelo LR, Sylva SP. 2003. Molecular fossil record of elevated methane levels in late Pleistocene coastal waters. Science. 299:1214–17.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Antoci V, Handler G, Campante TL, Thygesen AO, Moya A, et al. 2011. The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δSct star by efficient envelope convection. Nature. 477:570–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling P. 2013. Operational Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
García-Pedrajas N, Herrera F, Fyfe C, Benítez JM, Ali M, eds. 2010. Trends in Applied Intelligent Systems: 23rd International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2010, Cordoba, Spain, June 1-4, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Vol. 6097. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. XIX, 680 p. 205 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Foelsch PA, Schlüter-Müller S, Odom AE, Arena HT, Borzutzky AH, Schmeck K. 2014. Diagnosis and Treatment Indications. In Adolescent Identity Treatment: An Integrative Approach for Personality Pathology, ed S Schlüter-Müller, AE Odom, HT Arena, A Borzutzky H., K Schmeck, pp. 39–57. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fine Focus.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2016. Apollo 17 Landing Site To Be Revisited In Attempt To Win New Moon Race. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. NORAD’s Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability? LCD-78-117, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson DM. 2015. Prison nursery programs: Measuring society’s perceptions and support. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 2005. A Foreign Affair: Italian Film Festival at Stony Brook. New York Times, Oct. 23, p. 14LI10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 6–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleFine Focus
ISSN (print)2381-0637

Other styles