How to format your references using the Fine Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fine Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kideys AE. 2002. Ecology. Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem. Science. 297:1482–84.
A journal article with 2 authors
Altshuler JS, Altshuler D. 2004. Organizational challenges in clinical genomic research. Nature. 429:478–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghuman AS, van den Honert RN, Martin A. 2013. Interregional neural synchrony has similar dynamics during spontaneous and stimulus-driven states. Sci. Rep. 3:1481.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ghosh M, Song X, Mouneimne G, Sidani M, Lawrence DS, Condeelis JS. 2004. Cofilin promotes actin polymerization and defines the direction of cell motility. Science. 304:743–46.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massotte P, Corsi P. 2017. Smart Decisions in Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Valentini R, Miglietta F, eds. 2015. The Greenhouse Gas Balance of Italy: An Insight on Managed and Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. VIII, 211 p. 57 illus., 30 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Veloso E, Guimarães P. 2014. Education and Empowerment in Later Life. In Learning across Generations in Europe: Contemporary Issues in Older Adult Education, ed B Schmidt-Hertha, SJ Krašovec, M Formosa, pp. 35–45. Rotterdam: SensePublishers

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fine Focus.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. Researchers Can Now Implant False Memories Into People’s Brains. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Air Pollution: EPA Needs More Data From FHwA on Changes to Highway Projects. RCED-90-72, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nellenbach KM. 2010. Contributions of oral language, problem-solving, and reading attitudes to young adolescents’ silent reading comprehension. Doctoral dissertation thesis. University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte L. 2011. Scouting Report. New York Times, March 17, p. E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 6–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleFine Focus
ISSN (print)2381-0637

Other styles