How to format your references using the Fine Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fine Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flicek P. 2010. Journal club. A computational geneticist looks at mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Nature. 463:713.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomez Perdiguero E, Geissmann F. 2014. Cancer immunology. Identifying the infiltrators. Science. 344:801–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plotkin JB, Dushoff J, Fraser HB. 2004. Detecting selection using a single genome sequence of M. tuberculosis and P. falciparum. Nature. 428:942–45.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Heathman S, Haire RG, Le Bihan T, Lindbaum A, Idiri M, et al. 2005. A high-pressure structure in curium linked to magnetism. Science. 309:110–13.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill R, Solt G. 2010. Engineering Money. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gruhn V, Oquendo F, eds. 2006. Software Architecture: Third European Workshop, EWSA 2006, Nantes, France, September 4-5, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Vol. 4344. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. X, 250 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Earle CC. 2007. Surveillance after Primary Therapy. In Cancer Survivorship: Today and Tomorrow, ed PA Ganz, pp. 43–53. New York, NY: Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fine Focus.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2013. Ants Are Capable of Changing Their Priorities. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Education Block Grant: How Funds Reserved for State Efforts in California and Washington Are Used. HRD-86-94, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen T. 2012. Nail technician students’ awareness of some health effects of long-term exposure to chemicals used in nail salons and their understanding of health protection. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Mouawad J. 2012. U.S. Pension Agency Pressures American Airlines. New York Times, Feb. 1, p. B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 7, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleFine Focus
ISSN (print)2381-0637

Other styles