How to format your references using the Fine Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fine Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Di Santo JP. 2010. Immunology. A guardian of T cell fate. Science. 329:44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bodner S, Paine C. 2000. When peer review fails. Nature. 407:129–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu LQ, Cheley S, Bayley H. 2001. Capture of a single molecule in a nanocavity. Science. 291:636–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang CC, Nicholson AN, Rinaldi E, Berkowitz E, Garron N, et al. 2018. A per-cent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from quantum chromodynamics. Nature. 558:91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher MJ. 2010. Retirement Portfolios Workbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zamojski W, Mazurkiewicz J, Sugier J, Walkowiak T, Kacprzyk J, eds. 2015. Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland, Vol. 365. Cham: Springer International Publishing. XVI, 604 p. 221 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Blake JJ, Smith DM, Marchbanks MP, Seibert AL, Wood SM, Kim ES. 2016. Does Student–Teacher Racial/Ethnic Match Impact Black Students’ Discipline Risk? A Test of the Cultural Synchrony Hypothesis. In Inequality in School Discipline: Research and Practice to Reduce Disparities, ed RJ Skiba, K Mediratta, MK Rausch, pp. 79–98. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fine Focus.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Bright Aurora Spotted On Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Medicare Part D: CMS Has Implemented Processes to Oversee Plan Finder Pricing Accuracy and Improve Website Usability. GAO-14-143, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corona B. 2012. Laws governing the treatment, involuntary detention and community integration of individuals with developmental disabilities: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation thesis. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. 2011. One High School Band and the Changes It Wrought. New York Times, Oct. 9, p. A31B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3, 4).
This sentence cites four references (3, 5, 7, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleFine Focus
ISSN (print)2381-0637

Other styles