How to format your references using the Contemporary Buddhism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Buddhism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haxton, Wick. 2014. “Neutrino Physics: What Makes the Sun Shine.” Nature 512 (7515): 378–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sillanpää, Mika A., and Pertti J. Hakonen. 2014. “Optomechanics: Hardware for a Quantum Network.” Nature 507 (7490): 45, 47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sparrow, Betsy, Jenny Liu, and Daniel M. Wegner. 2011. “Google Effects on Memory: Cognitive Consequences of Having Information at Our Fingertips.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6043): 776–778.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Im, Young Jun, Sumana Raychaudhuri, William A. Prinz, and James H. Hurley. 2005. “Structural Mechanism for Sterol Sensing and Transport by OSBP-Related Proteins.” Nature 437 (7055): 154–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schlechty, Phillip C. 2009. Leading for Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
van Bueren, Ellen, Hein van Bohemen, Laure Itard, and Henk Visscher, eds. 2012. Sustainable Urban Environments: An Ecosystem Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chikhaoui, Belkacem, Shengrui Wang, and Hélène Pigot. 2011. “Activity Recognition in Smart Environments: An Information Retrieval Problem.” In Toward Useful Services for Elderly and People with Disabilities: 9th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2011, Montreal, Canada, June 20-22, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Bessam Abdulrazak, Sylvain Giroux, Bruno Bouchard, Hélène Pigot, and Mounir Mokhtari, 33–40. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Buddhism.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “How Fish And Clean Water Can Protect Coral Reefs From Warming Oceans.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Prekindergarten: Four Selected States Expanded Access by Relying on Schools and Existing Providers of Early Education and Care to Provide Services. GAO-04-852. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coles, Jon. 2017. “The Balancing of Parental Support and Pressure in Fostering Collegiate Athletes.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr. 2017. “Man Convicted of Murder in Patz Case Is Sentenced to 25 Years to Life.” New York Times, April 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haxton 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Haxton 2014; Sillanpää and Hakonen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sillanpää and Hakonen 2014)
  • Three authors: (Sparrow, Liu, and Wegner 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Im et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Buddhism
ISSN (print)1463-9947
ISSN (online)1476-7953

Other styles