How to format your references using the Contemporary Buddhism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Buddhism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murphy, Glenn. 2003. “Dyslexia: Lost for Words.” Nature 425 (6956): 340–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cotner, James B., and Edward K. Hall. 2011. “Comment on ‘A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6034): 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Panday, Virjanand, Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest, and Astrid M. L. Kappers. 2014. “Integration of Length and Curvature in Haptic Perception.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3856.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guan, Guofeng, Lidan Wu, Ali Asgar Bhagat, Zirui Li, Peter C. Y. Chen, Shuzhe Chao, Chong Jin Ong, and Jongyoon Han. 2013. “Spiral Microchannel with Rectangular and Trapezoidal Cross-Sections for Size Based Particle Separation.” Scientific Reports 3: 1475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bech, Søren, and Nick Zacharov. 2006. Perceptual Audio Evaluation-Theory, Method and Application. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hospers, Gert-Jan. 2015. Managing Population Decline in Europe’s Urban and Rural Areas. Edited by Nol Reverda. SpringerBriefs in Population Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosati, Riccardo. 2006. “Integrating Ontologies and Rules: Semantic and Computational Issues.” In Reasoning Web: Second International Summer School 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, September 4-8, 2006, Tutorial Lectures, edited by Pedro Barahona, François Bry, Enrico Franconi, Nicola Henze, and Ulrike Sattler, 128–151. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Buddhism.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Who Killed Ötzi The Iceman 5,300 Years Ago?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Telecommunications: FCC Needs to Improve Its Ability to Monitor and Determine the Extent of Competition in Dedicated Access Services. GAO-07-80. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguirre, Iris. 2009. “Policy Analysis of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2017. “An Eye for Beauty.” New York Times, May 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Murphy 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Murphy 2003; Cotner and Hall 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cotner and Hall 2011)
  • Three authors: (Panday, Tiest, and Kappers 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Guan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Buddhism
ISSN (print)1463-9947
ISSN (online)1476-7953

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