How to format your references using the Contemporary Buddhism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Buddhism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sack, Fred D. 2004. “Plant Sciences. Yoda Would Be Proud: Valves for Land Plants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5676): 1461–1462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enquist, Brian J., and Karl J. Niklas. 2002. “Global Allocation Rules for Patterns of Biomass Partitioning in Seed Plants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5559): 1517–1520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Jian, Yajun Mei, and Diana Hicks. 2014. “Science Communication. Comment on ‘Quantifying Long-Term Scientific Impact.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6193): 149.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Joint, Ian, Karen Tait, Maureen E. Callow, James A. Callow, Debra Milton, Paul Williams, and Miguel Cámara. 2002. “Cell-to-Cell Communication across the Prokaryote-Eukaryote Boundary.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5596): 1207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, Dominique, Aurelian Fatu, and Dominique Souchet. 2014. Internal Combustion Engine Bearings Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Harwood, T. Mark. 2010. Self-Help in Mental Health: A Critical Review. Edited by Luciano L’Abate. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Heald, R. J., and Brendan J. Moran. 2015. “Surgical Anatomy of the Rectum and the TME Specimen (Total Mesorectal Excision).” In Multidisciplinary Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: Staging – Treatment – Pathology – Palliation, edited by Gunnar Baatrup, 33–46. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Buddhism.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “How Brain Implants Can Let Paralysed People Move Again.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Export Controls: NASA Management Action and Improved Oversight Needed to Reduce the Risk of Unauthorized Access to Its Technologies. GAO-14-315. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vlajic, Nicholas A. 2014. “Dynamics of Slender, Flexible Structures.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David. 1997. “Behind the Velvet Rope.” New York Times, April 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sack 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sack 2004; Enquist and Niklas 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enquist and Niklas 2002)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Mei, and Hicks 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Joint et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Buddhism
ISSN (print)1463-9947
ISSN (online)1476-7953

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