How to format your references using the Contemporary Buddhism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Buddhism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salzberg, Steven. 2008. “The Contents of the Syringe.” Nature 454 (7201): 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Fubin, and Jeffrey V. Ravetch. 2011. “Inhibitory Fcγ Receptor Engagement Drives Adjuvant and Anti-Tumor Activities of Agonistic CD40 Antibodies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6045): 1030–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakagaki, T., H. Yamada, and A. Tóth. 2000. “Maze-Solving by an Amoeboid Organism.” Nature 407 (6803): 470.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Miguel, M. C., A. Vespignani, S. Zapperi, J. Weiss, and J. R. Grasso. 2001. “Intermittent Dislocation Flow in Viscoplastic Deformation.” Nature 410 (6829): 667–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, Michael H. 2003. Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chan, Carol K. K., and Nirmala Rao, eds. 2010. Revisiting The Chinese Learner: Changing Contexts, Changing Education. Vol. 25. CERC Studies in Comparative Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Christensen, Henrik I., and Gregory D. Hager. 2008. “Sensing and Estimation.” In Springer Handbook of Robotics, edited by Bruno Siciliano and Oussama Khatib, 87–107. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Buddhism.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. “Evolutionary Arms Race Between Cats And Viruses Goes Back 60,000 Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. GAO Education Products. HEHS-95-72R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Byung K. 2015. “Tracking of Truck Flows for Drayage Efficiency Analysis.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James. 2016. “European Leaders Debate Proposals for Closer Military Ties.” New York Times, September 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Salzberg 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Salzberg 2008; Li and Ravetch 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Ravetch 2011)
  • Three authors: (Nakagaki, Yamada, and Tóth 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Miguel et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Buddhism
ISSN (print)1463-9947
ISSN (online)1476-7953

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