How to format your references using the Contemporary Buddhism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Buddhism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brugger, Peter. 2015. “Animal Behavior. Chicks with a Number Sense.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6221): 477–478.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eeva, T., and E. Lehikoinen. 2000. “Recovery of Breeding Success in Wild Birds.” Nature 403 (6772): 851–852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, Meisheng, Ni Hong, and Yunhan Hong. 2009. “Generation of Medaka Fish Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5951): 430–433.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Farahany, Nita A., Henry T. Greely, Steven Hyman, Christof Koch, Christine Grady, Sergiu P. Pașca, Nenad Sestan, et al. 2018. “The Ethics of Experimenting with Human Brain Tissue.” Nature 556 (7702): 429–432.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker, H. Kent, and Philip English. 2011. Capital Budgeting Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fisher, Michael, Fariba Sadri, and Michael Thielscher, eds. 2009. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 9th International Workshop, CLIMA IX, Dresden, Germany, September 29-30, 2008. Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Vol. 5405. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
van de Heetkamp, Anne, and Ruud Tusveld. 2011. “(Rules of) Origin.” In Origin Management: Rules of Origin in Free Trade Agreements, edited by Ruud Tusveld, 71–108. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Buddhism.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Ancient Supernova Mystery Discovered At The Bottom Of The Ocean.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs a Departmentwide Strategy for Pursuing Low-Cost, Responsive Tactical Space Capabilities. GAO-06-449. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tolley, Christina Ballard. 2009. “The Role of Trust and Care in the Implementation of a Social Constructivist Curriculum in Physical Education.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, John. 2017. “Browsing for Denim. Or a Toothbrush.” New York Times, May 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brugger 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brugger 2015; Eeva and Lehikoinen 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eeva and Lehikoinen 2000)
  • Three authors: (Yi, Hong, and Hong 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Farahany et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Buddhism
ISSN (print)1463-9947
ISSN (online)1476-7953

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