How to format your references using the European Urology Focus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Urology Focus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley P. Gene screens for nuclear veterans. Nature 2001;412:5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gascon C, Smith ML. Ecology. Where rivers meet. Science 2004;305:1922–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asaadi N, Ribe NM, Sobouti F. Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell. Nature 2011;473:501–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Long F, Zhu A, Shi H, Wang H, Liu J. Rapid on-site/in-situ detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water using a structure-switching DNA optical biosensor. Sci Rep 2013;3:2308.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth M. Pharmazeutische Mikrobiologie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Gélinas F. Foundations of Civil Justice: Toward a Value-Based Framework for Reform. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Seki S, Sakurai T, Omichi M, Saeki A, Sakamaki D. Stimuli-Responsive Nanomaterials. In: Sakurai T, Omichi M, Saeki A, Sakamaki D, editors. High-Energy Charged Particles: Their Chemistry and Use as Versatile Tools for Nanofabrication, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Urology Focus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ancient “Monster” Sea Scorpions Were Gentle Giants. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Concorde Supersonic Aircraft Trial Entry into Dulles International Airport. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao X. Exfoliation Corrosion Kinetics of High Strength Aluminum Alloys. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. A Smelly Visit to the City’s Sewer System Ends With 3 Men Under Arrest. New York Times 2015:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Urology Focus
AbbreviationEur. Urol. Focus
ISSN (print)2405-4569

Other styles