How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Luo Z-X. Journal club. A palaeontologist ponders how genes and fossils can illuminate mammalian evolution. Nature 2010;465:669.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Fitch WT, Hauser MD. Computational constraints on syntactic processing in a nonhuman primate. Science 2004;303:377–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Adams MD, McVey M, Sekelsky JJ. Drosophila BLM in double-strand break repair by synthesis-dependent strand annealing. Science 2003;299:265–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Koren I, Kaufman YJ, Remer LA, et al. Measurement of the effect of Amazon smoke on inhibition of cloud formation. Science 2004;303:1342–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Morris A. A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2008.
An edited book
1
Beckner M. Microsoft Dynamics CRM API Development for Online and On-Premise Environments. Berkeley, CA: : Apress 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Dong J, Chang H-D, Radbruch A. Epigenetic Imprinting of Immunological Memory. In: Doerfler W, Böhm P, eds. Epigenetics - A Different Way of Looking at Genetics. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Medicine.

Blog post
1
Andrews R. Is Iceland’s Ominous Katla Volcano About To Erupt? IFLScience. 2016.https://www.iflscience.com/environment/icelands-ominous-katla-volcano-about-erupt/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Impact of Loan Limit Increases on College Prices Is Difficult to Discern. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Andrade NA. Environmental fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils which have received biosolids application. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Scott M, Kanter J. E.U. Ruling Said to Aim at Tax Policy for Apple. New York Times. 2016;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Medicine
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Med.
ISSN (print)1356-5524
ISSN (online)1473-6810
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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