How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Triendl R. A clash of two cultures. Nature 2002;419:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Whitesides GM, Crabtree GW. Don’t forget long-term fundamental research in energy. Science 2007;315:796–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Hopkins M, Harrison TM, Manning CE. Low heat flow inferred from >4 Gyr zircons suggests Hadean plate boundary interactions. Nature 2008;456:493–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Sil AK, Maeda S, Sano Y, et al. IkappaB kinase-alpha acts in the epidermis to control skeletal and craniofacial morphogenesis. Nature 2004;428:660–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Horton I. Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2010. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.
An edited book
1
Galvin KT, Prendergast M, editors. Poetic Inquiry II – Seeing, Caring, Understanding: Using Poetry as and for Inquiry. Rotterdam: : SensePublishers 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Criado J, Martínez S, Iribarne L, et al. Enabling the Reuse of Stored Model Transformations Through Annotations. In: Kolovos D, Wimmer M, eds. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: 8th International Conference, ICMT 2015, Held as Part of STAF 2015, L’Aquila, Italy, July 20-21, 2015. Proceedings. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Medicine.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. NASA Technology Saved Four Lives in Nepal Earthquake By Detecting Their Heartbeats. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/technology/nasas-radar-technology-saved-four-lives-nepal-earthquake-disaster/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Status of Equipment, Automotive Mechanics Training Project. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Vidal EM. Alcohol disorder with hip or knee surgery: Postoperative alcohol disorder-related costs and length of stay. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1
Kelly SR. A Better Way to Fix the Border. New York Times. 2017;:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Medicine
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Med.
ISSN (print)1356-5524
ISSN (online)1473-6810
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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