How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Edwards PP. Chemistry. Electrons in cement. Science 2011;333:49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Wapenaar K, Snieder R. Determinism: Chaos tamed. Nature 2007;447:643.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Field J, Cronin A, Bridge C. Future fitness and helping in social queues. Nature 2006;441:214–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Wasmer C, Lange A, Van Melckebeke H, et al. Amyloid fibrils of the HET-s(218-289) prion form a beta solenoid with a triangular hydrophobic core. Science 2008;319:1523–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Corten R. Computational Approaches to Studying the Co-evolution of Networks and Behavior in Social Dilemmas. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2014.
An edited book
1
Fitter J. Neutron Scattering in Biology: Techniques and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Herrera F, Villar E. Mixing Synchronous Reactive and Untimed MoCs in SystemC. In: Vachoux A, ed. Applications of Specification and Design Languages for SoCs: Selected papers from FDL 2005. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2006. 61–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Medicine.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Earth’s Magnetic Field May Be Half A Billion Years Older Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/earth-s-magnetic-field-may-be-half-billion-years-older-previously-thought/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Overview of the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Its Operation in California. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Asare KB. Understanding the Transformational Leadership Practices of Colleges of Education Principals. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kishkovsky S. Thousands In Moscow Rally to Call By Patriarch. New York Times. 2012;:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Medicine
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Med.
ISSN (print)1356-5524
ISSN (online)1473-6810
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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