How to format your references using the European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith A. Life beyond the walls. Nature 2002; 415: 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norell MA, Clarke JA. Fossil that fills a critical gap in avian evolution. Nature 2001; 409: 181–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou Z, Barrett PM, Hilton J. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 2003; 421: 807–814.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He YJ, Meghani K, Caron M-C et al. DYNLL1 binds to MRE11 to limit DNA end resection in BRCA1-deficient cells. Nature 2018; 563: 522–526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tatham M, Morton K. Developments in Speech Synthesis, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Górski J, editor. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 25th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2006, Gdansk, Poland, September 27-29, 2006. Proceedings,. 2006[Online] Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Mallakh RS, Roberts RJ, El-Mallakh PL. Disturbi dell’umore. In: Tardiff K (Ed.) Valutazione e gestione della violenza: Manuale per operatori della salute mentale. Milano: Springer; 2014; 69–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin).

Blog post
Luntz S. First Surviving Panda Triplets Cute As They Sound. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. General Aviation Safety: Additional FAA Efforts Could Help Identify and Mitigate Safety Risks Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCallum-Bonar C. Black Ashkenaz And the Almost Promised Land: Yiddish Literature and the Harlem Renaissance [Doctoral dissertation] Columbus, OH: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Look! Up in the Sky! Hoping for Broadway! In: New York Times. 2010 Jul. 4 AR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [2, 1].
This sentence cites four references [4, 2, 1, 3].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin)
AbbreviationUltraschall Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4614
ISSN (online)1438-8782
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles