How to format your references using the European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leutgeb S. Neuroscience. Detailed differences. Science 2008; 319: 1623–1624.
A journal article with 2 authors
D’Anna G, Gremaud G. The jamming route to the glass state in weakly perturbed granular media. Nature 2001; 413: 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huynh WU, Dittmer JJ, Alivisatos AP. Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells. Science 2002; 295: 2425–2427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eremets MI, Trojan IA, Medvedev SA et al. Superconductivity in hydrogen dominant materials: silane. Science 2008; 319: 1506–1509.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eligehausen R, Mallée R, Silva JF. Anchorage in Concrete Construction, Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, 2012.
An edited book
Engebretson K, Souza M de, Durka G et al., editors. International Handbook of Inter-religious Education,. 2010[Online] Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Heshmati A, Abolhosseini S, Altmann J. Financing Renewable Energy Development. In: Abolhosseini S, Altmann J (Eds.) The Development of Renewable Energy Sources and its Significance for the Environment. Singapore: Springer; 2015; 85–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin).

Blog post
Hale T. A Historic NASA Lunar Rover Was Sold For Scrap In Alabama. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Practitioner Data Bank: Information on Small Medical Malpractice Payments Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manuel DG. Integrate or Innovate: Controlling Schedule Risk in Major Defense Acquisition Programs [Doctoral dissertation] Washington, DC: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Washington Memo; Household Hiring Is Trickier With New Broom in Capital. In: New York Times. 1993 Feb. 12 A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [2, 1].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 3, 1].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin)
AbbreviationUltraschall Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4614
ISSN (online)1438-8782
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles