How to format your references using the European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chamberlin RV. Mean-field cluster model for the critical behaviour of ferromagnets. Nature 2000; 408: 337–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim J, DeBerardinis RJ. Cancer. Silencing a metabolic oncogene. Science 2013; 340: 558–559.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lehmann E, Brueckner F, Cramer P. Molecular basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase II activity. Nature 2007; 450: 445–449.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Friedman JR, Patel V V, Chen W et al. Quantum superposition of distinct macroscopic states. Nature 2000; 406: 43–46.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake AL. Handbook of Electrical Engineering, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Desolneux A. From Gestalt Theory to Image Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach,. In: Moisan L, Morel J-M (Eds.). New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Kopczak LR, Matthews G. Measuring Markets That Supply Cash-Based Humanitarian Interventions. In: Zobel CW, Altay N, Haselkorn MP (Eds.) Advances in Managing Humanitarian Operations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; 79–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin).

Blog post
Taub B. Ancient Termites Cultivated Fungus Gardens, Millions of Years Before Humans Appeared And Invented Agriculture. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs and INS: Information on Inspection, Infrastructure, Traffic Flow, and Security Matters at the Detroit Port of Entry Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yahyai S. Optimization of a method for testing ballast water for enterococci and an investigation on the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in vibrio cholerae [Doctoral dissertation] College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. You Talkin’ to Me? Less and Less These Days. In: New York Times. 2003 Jun. 1 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1, 4, 2, 3].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin)
AbbreviationUltraschall Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4614
ISSN (online)1438-8782
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles