How to format your references using the European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loveland W. Chemistry. Superheavy carbonyls. Science 2014; 345: 1451–1452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vlaminck V, Bailleul M. Current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift. Science 2008; 322: 410–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Armitage JJ, Collier JS, Minshull TA. The importance of rift history for volcanic margin formation. Nature 2010; 465: 913–917.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu M, Duke JL, Richter DJ et al. Two levels of protection for the B cell genome during somatic hypermutation. Nature 2008; 451: 841–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach J. Excel® 2010 Power Programming with VBA, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Braedel-Kühner C. Re-thinking Diversity: Multiple Approaches in Theory, Media, Communities, and Managerial Practice,. In: Müller A (Ed.). 1st ed. 2016 Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Behera SK, Chae S-H, Yeo H-K et al. Enhancement of Eco-production Capacity in Chittagong Export Processing Zone (CEPZ), Bangladesh, Employing Korean EIP Transition Strategy. In: Dev SM, Yedla S (Eds.) Cities and Sustainability: Issues and Strategic Pathways. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015; 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin).

Blog post
Hamilton K. Juno Is About To Peer Under The Clouds Of Jupiter. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilbert C. Factors Associated With Dietetic Interns’ Knowledge of Sodium and the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [Doctoral dissertation] Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Browsing for Denim. Or a Toothbrush. In: New York Times. 2017 May 4 D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [3, 4, 1, 2].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin)
AbbreviationUltraschall Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4614
ISSN (online)1438-8782
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles