How to format your references using the European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers JA. Materials science. Nanometer-scale printing. Science 2012; 337: 1459–1460.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saye RI, Sethian JA. Multiscale modeling of membrane rearrangement, drainage, and rupture in evolving foams. Science 2013; 340: 720–724.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen B, Makley DM, Johnston JN. Umpolung reactivity in amide and peptide synthesis. Nature 2010; 465: 1027–1032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clark PM, Loher P, Quann K et al. Argonaute CLIP-Seq reveals miRNA targetome diversity across tissue types. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5947.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray KA, Paschkewitz JJ. Next Generation HALT and HASS, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Fogh Olsen O, Florack L, Kuijper A, editors. Deep Structure, Singularities, and Computer Vision: First International Workshop, DSSCV 2005, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 9-10, 2005, Revised Selected Papers,. 2005[Online] Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Basso D, Pesarin F, Salmaso L et al. Multivariate Continuous Data. In: Salmaso L, Pesarin F, Basso D (Eds.) Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA: Theory and Applications with R. New York, NY: Springer; 2009; 85–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin).

Blog post
Taub B. Light Pollution Leads Baby Sea Turtles Astray, Study Shows. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Trust Funds Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wirtz Y. Strain Variation between the Monterey and Sisquoc Formations, Southern Santa Maria Basin, California, USA: Implications for Structural Assessment of Fold and Thrust Belts [Doctoral dissertation] Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink S. Even Nightmares Are Classified. In: New York Times. 2016 Nov. 12 A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [4, 1–3].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin)
AbbreviationUltraschall Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4614
ISSN (online)1438-8782
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles