How to format your references using the European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Futuyma DJ. Retrospective. Robert R. Sokal (1926-2012). Science 2012; 336: 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hashmi A, Hong J. Metal free half metallicity in 2D system: structural and magnetic properties of g-C4N3 on BN. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4374.
A journal article with 3 authors
Diddams SA, Hollberg L, Mbele V. Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb. Nature 2007; 445: 627–630.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu Z, Pagani M, Zinniker D et al. Global cooling during the eocene-oligocene climate transition. Science 2009; 323: 1187–1190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Engle CR, Quagrainie KK, Dey MM. Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Martin R, Lutterotti A, editors. Molecular Basis of Multiple Sclerosis: The Immune System,. 2010[Online] Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Rohunen A, Eteläperä M, Liukkunen K et al. Validating Applicability of Smart-M3 Platform for a Multi-vendor Micropayment System in the Context of Small Business. In: Benlamri R (Ed.) Networked Digital Technologies: 4th International Conference, NDT 2012, Dubai, UAE, April 24-26, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012; 46–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin).

Blog post
Davis J. Viruses May Be More Infectious In The Morning Than Later In The Day. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018]. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: Use of Start-Up Grant Funds Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bain Butler D. How L2 legal writers use strategies for scholarly writing: A mixed methods study [Doctoral dissertation] College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Tango On the Beach. In: New York Times. 2010 Jun. 17 E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [3, 1, 2, 4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ultrasound (Ultraschall in der Medizin)
AbbreviationUltraschall Med.
ISSN (print)0172-4614
ISSN (online)1438-8782
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles