How to format your references using the Clinical Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rauchway E. Recession Watch: Work for the greater good. Nature. 2009;457(7232):959-960.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahmed WW, Saif TA. Active transport of vesicles in neurons is modulated by mechanical tension. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flak MB, Neves JF, Blumberg RS. Immunology. Welcome to the microgenderome. Science. 2013;339(6123):1044-1045.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Strausberg RL, Simpson AJG, Old LJ, Riggins GJ. Oncogenomics and the development of new cancer therapies. Nature. 2004;429(6990):469-474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov BM. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Fritzsche W, Popp J, eds. Optical Nano- and Microsystems for Bioanalytics. Vol 10. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Serra P, Duocastella M, Fernández-Pradas JM, Morenza JL. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer: A Laser-Based Technique for Biomolecules Printing. In: Ringeisen BR, Spargo BJ, Wu PK, eds. Cell and Organ Printing. Springer Netherlands; 2010:53-80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Lung Cancer.

Blog post
Davis J. New Test Determines How Fast You’re Aging. IFLScience. Published September 7, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Coordination of Federal Cyber Security Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kraka EK. Assessment of Herbicides for Control of Non-Native Species: Italian Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne Spp. Multiflorum ), Tropical Spiderwort (Commelina Benghalensis), and Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum Viarum). Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Can’t Quit Mother Russia. New York Times. March 6, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Lung Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Lung Cancer
ISSN (print)1525-7304
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles