How to format your references using the Clinical Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell B. New release: the complete guide to organ repair. Introduction. Science. 2008;322(5907):1489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot E, Thomas RH. Mass balance of polar ice sheets. Science. 2002;297(5586):1502-1506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffin AS, West SA, Buckling A. Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteria. Nature. 2004;430(7003):1024-1027.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hartshorn K, Hovius N, Dade WB, Slingerland RL. Climate-driven bedrock incision in an active mountain belt. Science. 2002;297(5589):2036-2038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Recho N. Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Kitazato H, M. Bernhard J, eds. Approaches to Study Living Foraminifera: Collection, Maintenance and Experimentation. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Morel M. Model-Based Safety Approach for Early Validation of Integrated and Modular Avionics Architectures. In: Ortmeier F, Rauzy A, eds. Model-Based Safety and Assessment: 4th International Symposium, IMBSA 2014, Munich, Germany, October 27-29, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:57-69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Lung Cancer.

Blog post
Fang J. Top Rooster Always Crows First. IFLScience. Published July 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Factors Affecting Involvement in Vehicle Crashes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer KA. System for Identifying Plankton from the SIPPER Instrument Platform. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yancy G. I Am a Dangerous Professor. New York Times. November 30, 2016:SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Lung Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Lung Cancer
ISSN (print)1525-7304
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles