How to format your references using the Clinical Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kupferschmidt K. Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science. 2015;349(6245):223-224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng CL, Novales Flamarique I. Opsin expression: new mechanism for modulating colour vision. Nature. 2004;428(6980):279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feldon DF, Maher MA, Timmerman BE. Graduate education. Performance-based data in the study of STEM Ph.D. education. Science. 2010;329(5989):282-283.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chaudhury S, Smith A, Anderson BE, Ghose S, Jessen PS. Quantum signatures of chaos in a kicked top. Nature. 2009;461(7265):768-771.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zigangirov KS. Theory of Code Division Multiple Access Communication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Benuto LT, Thaler NS, Leany BD, eds. Guide to Psychological Assessment with Asians. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Nziali E, Fayolle A. Early-Stage Businesses, Resource Inheritance, and Coworkers Hiring: The Moderating Role of Founder’s Human Capital. In: Baptista R, Leitão J, eds. Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Networks, Knowledge Flows, and Industry Growth. International Studies in Entrepreneurship. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:75-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Lung Cancer.

Blog post
Fang J. Snails Can’t Escape Carnivorous Sea Stars In Our Acidifying Oceans. IFLScience. Published July 1, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transit Grants: Need for Improved Predictability, Data, and Monitoring in Application Processing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward VJ. A study of the perceptions of first-year teachers as prepared classroom teachers. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times. April 22, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Lung Cancer
AbbreviationClin. Lung Cancer
ISSN (print)1525-7304
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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