How to format your references using the Hypotheses in the Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hypotheses in the Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischer A. Gene therapy: Repair and replace. Nature, (2014) 510(7504), 226–227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aanen DK, Bisseling T. Microbiology. The birth of cooperation. Science (New York, N.Y.), (2014) 345(6192), 29–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodruff JD, Irish JL, Camargo SJ. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise. Nature, (2013) 504(7478), 44–52.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Zhang W, Wang Y, Lee OO, et al. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses. Scientific reports, (2013) 3, 3180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMarzio JF. Beginning Android® Programming with Android Studio. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Chen H, Kao LS, editors. Success in Academic Surgery: Part 1. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivera E, Rodríguez A. Competition and Regulation in the Banking Systems of Central America and Mexico: A Comparative Study. In: Schatan C, Rivera E, editors. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and Challenges from Central America and Mexico. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 97–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hypotheses in the Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E. Action shot of sexual reproduction of 100-million-year-old-flower has been preserved in amber [Internet]. IFLScience(2014) [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telephone Communications: Issues Affecting Rural Telephone Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selby C. With|out. (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Moschen I. The Two-Wheeled Amenity. New York Times(2013) , RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHypotheses in the Life Sciences
ISSN (print)2042-8960

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