How to format your references using the Hypotheses in the Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hypotheses in the Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman SE. A glimmer of light for neuropsychiatric disorders. Nature, (2008) 455(7215), 890–893.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulet JFA, Hedwig B. The cellular basis of a corollary discharge. Science (New York, N.Y.), (2006) 311(5760), 518–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Braunschweig H, Radacki K, Schneider A. Oxoboryl complexes: boron-oxygen triple bonds stabilized in the coordination sphere of platinum. Science (New York, N.Y.), (2010) 328(5976), 345–347.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
David CJ, Chen M, Assanah M, Canoll P, Manley JL. HnRNP proteins controlled by c-Myc deregulate pyruvate kinase mRNA splicing in cancer. Nature, (2010) 463(7279), 364–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander M, Walkenbach J. 101 Ready-to-Use Excel® Macros. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Fogo AB, Cohen AH, Jennette JC, Bruijn JA, Colvin RB, editors. Fundamentals of Renal Pathology. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Argatov I, Mishuris G. Frictionless Contact of Thin Viscoelastic Layers. In: Mishuris G, editor. Contact Mechanics of Articular Cartilage Layers: Asymptotic Models. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 99–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hypotheses in the Life Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz S. Dinosaur-Like Features Appeared Millions Of Years Before Actual Dinosaurs [Internet]. IFLScience(2016) [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research Projects: Concerns About DOE’s Super Collider Site Selection Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bade LL. Extending the benefits of alcohol and drug treatment: An exploration of volunteer utilization and delivery of recovery services. (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman M, Pear R. Trump Jumps In, Trying to Propel Health Care Bill. New York Times(2017) , A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHypotheses in the Life Sciences
ISSN (print)2042-8960

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