How to format your references using the Hypotheses in the Life Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hypotheses in the Life Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haile-Selassie Y. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, (2001) 412(6843), 178–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ponce de León MS, Zollikofer CP. Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity. Nature, (2001) 412(6846), 534–538.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood BJ, Walter MJ, Wade J. Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core. Nature, (2006) 441(7095), 825–833.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
Oganov AR, Chen J, Gatti C, et al. Ionic high-pressure form of elemental boron. Nature, (2009) 460(7252), 292.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Al-Shuhail AA, Al-Dossary SA, Mousa WA. Seismic Data Interpretation using Digital Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Tan A-G, Perleth C, editors. Creativity, Culture, and Development. 1st ed. 2015. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Saito H. Mast Cells. In: Önerci TM, editor. Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 69–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hypotheses in the Life Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew D. New Footage Surfaces Of One Of The Largest Great White Sharks Ever Recorded [Internet]. IFLScience(2015) [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Aid Information and Private Tuition-Guarantee Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham SR. Using Self-Monitoring and Goal Setting to Increase Swimming in Adults. (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. The Shopping Urge Can Hit Anytime. New York Times(2010) , E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHypotheses in the Life Sciences
ISSN (print)2042-8960

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