How to format your references using the European Journal of Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garrett, Bruce C. 2004. “Chemistry. Ions at the Air/Water Interface.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5661): 1146–1147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kraehenbuhl, Jean-Pierre, and Max Corbett. 2004. “Immunology. Keeping the Gut Microflora at Bay.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5664): 1624–1625.
A journal article with 3 authors
Day, M., R. Langston, and R. G. M. Morris. 2003. “Glutamate-Receptor-Mediated Encoding and Retrieval of Paired-Associate Learning.” Nature 424 (6945): 205–209.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Blanchon, Paul, Anton Eisenhauer, Jan Fietzke, and Volker Liebetrau. 2009. “Rapid Sea-Level Rise and Reef Back-Stepping at the Close of the Last Interglacial Highstand.” Nature 458 (7240): 881–884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai, C. Stan. 2006. Biomacromolecules. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Öztürk, Münir, Benno Böer, Hans-Jörg Barth, Miguel Clüsener-Godt, M. Ajmal Khan, and Siegmar-W Breckle, eds. 2011. Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume III: Africa and Southern Europe. Vol. 46. Tasks for Vegetation Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sauer, Birgit, and Edma Ajanovic. 2016. “Hegemonic Discourses of Difference and Inequality: Right-Wing Organisations in Austria.” In The Rise of the Far Right in Europe: Populist Shifts and “Othering,” edited by Gabriella Lazaridis, Giovanna Campani, and Annie Benveniste, 81–108. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Gene Linked To Youthful Appearance May Help Solve Ageing Puzzle.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Transportation Safety: Opportunities for Enhancing Safety Across Modes. T-RCED-94-120. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowley, Claire E. 2012. “Aging of Florida Blue Crabs, Callinectes Sapidus, Through the Biochemical Extraction of Lipofuscin.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “Two Asian-American Actors in ‘Hawaii Five-0’ Depart.” New York Times, July 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garrett 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Garrett 2004; Kraehenbuhl and Corbett 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kraehenbuhl and Corbett 2004)
  • Three authors: (Day, Langston, and Morris 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Blanchon et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Teacher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0261-9768
ISSN (online)1469-5928

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