How to format your references using the European Journal of Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Armstrong, Fraser A. 2013. “Chemistry. Copying Biology’s Ways with Hydrogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6120): 658–659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finkelstein, Israel, and Eli Piasetzky. 2003. “Comment on ‘14C Dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age Chronology, Pharaohs, and Hebrew Kings.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5645): 568; author reply 568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miles, Michael A., Matthew Yeo, and Isabel L. Mauricio. 2009. “Genetics. Leishmania Exploit Sex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5924): 187–189.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jefferis, G. S., E. C. Marin, R. F. Stocker, and L. Luo. 2001. “Target Neuron Prespecification in the Olfactory Map of Drosophila.” Nature 414 (6860): 204–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies, David. 2011. Philosophy of the Performing Arts. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Schinas, Orestis, Carsten Grau, and Max Johns, eds. 2015. HSBA Handbook on Ship Finance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Llewellyn, Anna, and Heather Mendick. 2011. “Does Every Child Count? Quality, Equity and Mathematics with/in Neoliberalism.” In Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education, edited by Bill Atweh, Mellony Graven, Walter Secada, and Paola Valero, 49–62. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Teacher Education.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “You Can See A Newly Discovered Comet With Just Binoculars This Week.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. USDA Telecommunications: More Effort Needed to Address Telephone Abuse and Fraud. AIMD-96-59. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Benson, Martin K. 2010. “Joint -Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo, Kelly. 2015. “Sarah Aciego on Breaking Barriers to Arctic Travel.” New York Times, September 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Armstrong 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Armstrong 2013; Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2003)
  • Three authors: (Miles, Yeo, and Mauricio 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jefferis et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Teacher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0261-9768
ISSN (online)1469-5928

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