How to format your references using the European Journal of Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swaminathan, M. S. 2009. “Obituary: Norman E. Borlaug (1914-2009).” Nature 461 (7266): 894.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nusbaum, Michael P., and Mark P. Beenhakker. 2002. “A Small-Systems Approach to Motor Pattern Generation.” Nature 417 (6886): 343–350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hedrick, Tyson L., Bo Cheng, and Xinyan Deng. 2009. “Wingbeat Time and the Scaling of Passive Rotational Damping in Flapping Flight.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5924): 252–255.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Johnson, Matthew D., David Oldach, Charles F. Delwiche, and Diane K. Stoecker. 2007. “Retention of Transcriptionally Active Cryptophyte Nuclei by the Ciliate Myrionecta Rubra.” Nature 445 (7126): 426–428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges, Robert H., Jr. 2014. Practical Field Robotics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Crowley, James L., Bruce A. Draper, and Monique Thonnat, eds. 2011. Computer Vision Systems: 8th International Conference, ICVS 2011, Sophia Antipolis, France, September 20-22, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 6962. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Guveli, Ayse, Harry B. G. Ganzeboom, Lucinda Platt, Bernhard Nauck, Helen Baykara-Krumme, Şebnem Eroğlu, Sait Bayrakdar, Efe K. Sözeri, and Niels Spierings. 2016. “Educational Attainment.” In Intergenerational Consequences of Migration: Socio-Economic, Family and Cultural Patterns of Stability and Change in Turkey and Europe, edited by Harry B. G. Ganzeboom, Lucinda Platt, Bernhard Nauck, Helen Baykara-Krumme, Şebnem Eroğlu, Sait Bayrakdar, Efe K. Sözeri, and Niels Spierings, 71–89. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Teacher Education.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Cold War Spy Satellites Used To Track Himalayan Glacier Retreat.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Electronic Surveillance. RCED-95-54R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, Arisa Shibagaki. 2017. “Bread and Washoku: Unveiling Japanese Identity Through the Necessity of Bread Baking.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2017. “WBGO Is Giving Jazz a Higher Profile Online.” New York Times, January 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Swaminathan 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Swaminathan 2009; Nusbaum and Beenhakker 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nusbaum and Beenhakker 2002)
  • Three authors: (Hedrick, Cheng, and Deng 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Teacher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0261-9768
ISSN (online)1469-5928

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