How to format your references using the European Journal of Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, Robert M. 2004. “Raising Europe’s Game.” Nature 430 (7002): 831–832.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugita, Makoto, and Yoshiki Shiba. 2005. “Genetic Tracing Shows Segregation of Taste Neuronal Circuitries for Bitter and Sweet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5735): 781–785.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, William H., Richard Houang, and Leland S. Cogan. 2011. “Education. Preparing Future Math Teachers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6035): 1266–1267.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wei, Chengzhen, Huan Pang, Bo Zhang, Qingyi Lu, Shuang Liang, and Feng Gao. 2013. “Two-Dimensional β-MnO₂ Nanowire Network with Enhanced Electrochemical Capacitance.” Scientific Reports 3: 2193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saint-Dizier, Patrick. 2014. Musical Rhetoric. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Suzuki, Osamu. 2005. Drugs and Poisons in Humans: A Handbook of Practical Analysis. Edited by Kanako Watanabe. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bender, Sebastian. 2016. “On Worlds, Laws and Tiles: Leibniz and the Problem of Compossibility.” In Leibniz on Compossibility and Possible Worlds, edited by Gregory Brown and Yual Chiek, 65–90. The New Synthese Historical Library. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Watch Hyenas Gang Together to Steal a Tasty Meal from Lions.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Telecommunications Relay Service: FCC Should Strengthen Its Management of Program to Assist Persons with Hearing or Speech Disabilities. GAO-15-409. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chakravarty, Shubha. 2009. “Harvesting Health: Fertilizer, Nutrition and AIDS Treatment in Kenya.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, Susan. 2016. “Just Dance.” New York Times, July 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2004).
This sentence cites two references (May 2004; Sugita and Shiba 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sugita and Shiba 2005)
  • Three authors: (Schmidt, Houang, and Cogan 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wei et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Teacher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0261-9768
ISSN (online)1469-5928

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