How to format your references using the European Journal of Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. “Looking for a Fast Track.” Nature 431 (7006): 381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schultz, Richard M., and Carmen J. Williams. 2002. “The Science of ART.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5576): 2188–2190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, Min, Hong Kang, and Xiangping Li. 2014. “Breaking the Diffraction-Limited Resolution Barrier in Fiber-Optical Two-Photon Fluorescence Endoscopy by an Azimuthally-Polarized Beam.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3627.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stuber, Nicola, Piers Forster, Gaby Rädel, and Keith Shine. 2006. “The Importance of the Diurnal and Annual Cycle of Air Traffic for Contrail Radiative Forcing.” Nature 441 (7095): 864–867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allerton, David. 2009. Principles of Flight Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fossen, Thor I., and Henk Nijmeijer, eds. 2012. Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chang, Ju Yong, Kyoung Mu Lee, and Sang Uk Lee. 2006. “Stereo Matching Using Iterated Graph Cuts and Mean Shift Filtering.” In Computer Vision – ACCV 2006: 7th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Hyderabad, India, January 13-16, 2006. Proceedings, Part I, edited by P. J. Narayanan, Shree K. Nayar, and Heung-Yeung Shum, 31–40. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “NASA Makes Awesome Travel Posters For Exoplanets.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Postsecondary Education: Financial Trends in Public and Private Nonprofit Institutions. GAO-12-179. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gada, Komal Kantilal. 2015. “Numerical Analyses of Passive and Active Flow Control over a Micro Air Vehicle with an Optimized Airfoil.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams, and Michael Cooper. 2012. “Recommendations for State and National Policy Makers.” New York Times, July 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Schultz and Williams 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schultz and Williams 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gu, Kang, and Li 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Stuber et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Teacher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)0261-9768
ISSN (online)1469-5928

Other styles