How to format your references using the International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwin, D. (2009). A call to the custodians of deep time. Nature, 462(7271), 282–283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reimann, J. D. R., & Jackson, P. K. (2002). Emi1 is required for cytostatic factor arrest in vertebrate eggs. Nature, 416(6883), 850–854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, D. Y. W., Hoster, H. E., & Batabyal, S. K. (2014). Bulk antimony sulfide with excellent cycle stability as next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Scientific Reports, 4, 4562.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Feng, Y., Liu, H., Wang, P., Ye, F., Tan, Q., & Yang, J. (2014). Enhancing the electrocatalytic property of hollow structured platinum nanoparticles for methanol oxidation through a hybrid construction. Scientific Reports, 4, 6204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn-Deinstrop, E. (2006). Dünnschicht-Chromatographie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Akama, S. (Ed.). (2016). Towards Paraconsistent Engineering (Vol. 110). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wood, R. E. (2009). Bronchoscopy in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. In D. S. Wheeler, H. R. Wong, & T. P. Shanley (Eds.), The Respiratory Tract in Pediatric Critical Illness and Injury (pp. 1–5). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, July 29). Meet Viserion And Drogon: The New Ant Species Named After The Game Of Thrones Dragons. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Airline Deregulation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Competition in Several Key Domestic Markets (RCED-97-4). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beard, J. A. (2014). Evidence of Leadership Competencies in the Journal of Mary Easton Sibley, a Pioneering 19th Century Women’s College Founder [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, May 23). Justices Back Police Intervention Without a Warrant. New York Times, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Erwin, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Erwin, 2009; Reimann & Jackson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reimann & Jackson, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Yu et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Feng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education
ISSN (print)1754-3266
ISSN (online)1754-3274
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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