How to format your references using the European Journal of Social Work citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Social Work. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barron, M. (2008). Science & music: raising the roof. Nature, 453(7197), 859–860.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fischbach, M. A., & Walsh, C. T. (2006). Biochemistry. Directing biosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5799), 603–605.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baluska, F., Volkmann, D., & Barlow, P. W. (2004). Cell bodies in a cage. Nature, 428(6981), 371.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, Y., Rodrigo, J., Hoveyda, A. H., & Snapper, M. L. (2006). Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols catalysed by an amino-acid-based small molecule. Nature, 443(7107), 67–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas, A. (2012). Case Histories in Vibration Analysis and Metal Fatigue for the Practicing Engineer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bonesso, S., Comacchio, A., & Pizzi, C. (Eds.). (2014). Project-Based Knowledge in Organizing Open Innovation. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aloisio, G., Caffaro, M., & Epicoco, I. (2006). A Grid Software Process. In J. C. Cunha & O. F. Rana (Eds.), Grid Computing: Software Environments and Tools (pp. 75–98). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Social Work.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, December 15). This Is What The Internet Looked Like In 1973. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Information Technology: Social Security Administration’s Data Exchanges Support Current Programs, but Better Planning Is Needed to Meet Future Demands (GAO-09-966). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karriem, K. L. (2010). The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, August 31). Viceroy’s House. New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barron, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Barron, 2008; Fischbach & Walsh, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fischbach & Walsh, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Baluska et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Social Work
AbbreviationEur. J. Soc. Work
ISSN (print)1369-1457
ISSN (online)1468-2664
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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