How to format your references using the BMC Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. High road to Scotland. Nature. 2004;432:128–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Olson EL, Allen RM. The deterministic nature of earthquake rupture. Nature. 2005;438:212–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Alexander JM, Diez JM, Levine JM. Novel competitors shape species’ responses to climate change. Nature. 2015;525:515–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jager M, Murienne J, Clabaut C, Deutsch J, Le Guyader H, Manuel M. Homology of arthropod anterior appendages revealed by Hox gene expression in a sea spider. Nature. 2006;441:506–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kölle W. Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
1. Zwaag S van der, editor. Self Healing Materials: An Alternative Approach to 20 Centuries of Materials Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Riedl R, Léger P-M. Topics in NeuroIS and a Taxonomy of Neuroscience Theories in NeuroIS. In: Léger P-M, editor. Fundamentals of NeuroIS: Information Systems and the Brain. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 73–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Physics.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Earth May Have Briefly Supported Complex Life Long Before We Arrived. IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/earth-may-have-briefly-supported-complex-life-long-before-we-arrived/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Weather Service Modernization: Despite Progress, Significant Problems and Risks Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sutton SR. Freshman transition programs: Effect on ninth grade student preparedness. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Miller S. Tennis Stars on Steroids? It’s Make Believe, Right? New York Times. 2017;:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Physics
ISSN (print)1756-6649
Scope

Other styles