How to format your references using the BMC Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Roubik DW. The value of bees to the coffee harvest. Nature. 2002;417:708.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Daubin V, Moran NA. Comment on “The origins of genome complexity.” Science. 2004;306:978; author reply 978.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yamashita YM, Jones DL, Fuller MT. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science. 2003;301:1547–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mutreja A, Kim DW, Thomson NR, Connor TR, Lee JH, Kariuki S, et al. Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic. Nature. 2011;477:462–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Padilla E. Substation Automation Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Bach Pedersen T, Mohania MK, Tjoa AM, editors. Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 12th International Conference, DAWAK 2010, Bilbao, Spain, August/September 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Flint DJ, Signori P, Golicic SL. Relationships. In: Signori P, Golicic SL, editors. Contemporary Wine Marketing and Supply Chain Management: A Global Perspective. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Physics.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Scientists Have Discovered A New Form Of Light. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/new-form-light-discovered/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Overhead Costs: Unallowable Costs Charged by Rockwell Corporation, Rocketdyne Division. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Scuderi NF. Servant leadership and transformational leadership in church organizations. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rappeport A. Measure to Loosen Dodd-Frank Banking Rules Passes the House. New York Times. 2017;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Physics
ISSN (print)1756-6649
Scope

Other styles