How to format your references using the BMC Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Physics (BMC Med Phys). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kump L. Ocean science. Ironing out biosphere oxidation. Science. 2005;307:1058–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thornton A, McAuliffe K. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science. 2006;313:227–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tripati AK, Roberts CD, Eagle RA. Coupling of CO2 and ice sheet stability over major climate transitions of the last 20 million years. Science. 2009;326:1394–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Niu H, Chung W-H, Zhu Z, Kwon Y, Zhao W, Chi P, et al. Mechanism of the ATP-dependent DNA end-resection machinery from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 2010;467:108–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rider MJ. Design and Analysis of Mechanisms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Kalra MK, Saini S, Rubin GD, editors. MDCT: From Protocols to Practice. Milano: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Weisbrot D. The Imperative of the “New Genetics”: Challenges for Ethics, Law, and Social Policy. In: Betta M, editor. The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and Screening: The Australian Case. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 95–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Physics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How A Week Of Camping Resets The Body Clock. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General, Vol. III, No. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Luong W. An identity building program for American-born children of Southeast Asian refugees. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Teaching Tour Guides the Trivia Behind the Trivia. New York Times. 2001;:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Physics
ISSN (print)1756-6649

Other styles