How to format your references using the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloat DL. South Dakota school replies to sexual harassment claims. Nature 2009; 460: 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu H, Tromp J. Mapping tectonic deformation in the crust and upper mantle beneath Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean. Science 2013; 341: 871–875.
A journal article with 3 authors
Torsvik V, Øvreås L, Thingstad TF. Prokaryotic diversity--magnitude, dynamics, and controlling factors. Science 2002; 296: 1064–1066.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Séguin A, Harvey É, Archambault P, et al. Body size as a predictor of species loss effect on ecosystem functioning. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parashar RK. Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Synthesis. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
Hrycay EG, Bandiera SM (eds). Monooxygenase, Peroxidase and Peroxygenase Properties and Mechanisms of Cytochrome P450. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo W, Zhu Y, Hong T. Characteristic Analysis and Management of Human Resource in EPC Project. In: Sun H, Yang C-Y, Lin C-W, et al. (eds) Genetic and Evolutionary Computing: Proceeding of the Eighth International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, October 18-20, 2014, Nanchang, China. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 20 Million-Year-Old Flea Could Contain Ancient Ancestor Of Bubonic Plague. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Greater Use of Exemplary Education Programs Could Improve Education for Disadvantaged Children. HRD-81-65, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 15 September 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim CS. Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Sorting Out their Goals, and Options. New York Times, 12 April 2009, p. WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Prev. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)2047-4873
ISSN (online)2047-4881
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles