How to format your references using the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek F. From ‘not wrong’ to (maybe right). Nature 2004; 428: 261.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen P-W, Ali MM. Investigating Leggett-Garg inequality for a two level system under decoherence in a non-Markovian dephasing environment. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 6165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rainville S, Thompson JK, Pritchard DE. An ion balance for ultra-high-precision atomic mass measurements. Science 2004; 303: 334–338.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jordan IK, Kondrashov FA, Adzhubei IA, et al. A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution. Nature 2005; 433: 633–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn A, Behle B, Lischewski D, et al. Produktionstechnische Praxis. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002.
An edited book
Ebbin SA, Håkon Hoel A, Sydnes AK (eds). A Sea Change: The Exclusive Economic Zone and Governance Institutions for Living Marine Resources. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvaggi S. Insegnare e apprendere online. In: Selvaggi S, Vollono E, Sicignano G (eds) e-Learning: Nuovi strumenti per insegnare, apprendere, comunicare online. Milano: Springer, 2007, pp. 55–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Misshaped Fossil Plankton Signal Mass Extinctions. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Passengers with Disabilities: Air Carriers’ Disability-Training Programs and the Department of Transportation’s Oversight. GAO-17-541R, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 31 May 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adijanto J. Metabolic acid transport in human retinal pigment epithelium. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Recognizing a Hurdle and Finding Her Voice. New York Times, 14 June 2014, p. A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Prev. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)2047-4873
ISSN (online)2047-4881
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles