How to format your references using the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang L. China must act decisively to eradicate the ivory trade. Nature 2015; 527: 135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norris DP, Grimes DT. Developmental biology. Cilia discern left from right. Science 2012; 338: 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandrappa GT, Steunou N, Livage J. Materials chemistry: macroporous crystalline vanadium oxide foam. Nature 2002; 416: 702.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang W-W, Xie C-L, Lu L, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Baihui (GV20)-based scalp acupuncture in experimental ischemic stroke. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 3981.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taber DF. Organic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
Vicars M, McKenna T, White J (eds). Discourse, Power, and Resistance Down Under. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Simón Mata A, Bataller Torras A, Cabrera Carrillo JA, et al. Balancing of Machinery. In: Bataller Torras A, Cabrera Carrillo JA, Ezquerro Juanco F, et al. (eds) Fundamentals of Machine Theory and Mechanisms. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 195–231.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

Blog post
Hale T. The Hilarious Winners Of The Comedy Wildlife Photo Awards 2016. IFLScience, (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control Modernization: Management Challenges Associated with Program Costs and Schedules Could Hinder NextGen Implementation. GAO-12-223, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 16 February 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith BL. A Qualitative Study of Veteran Students’ Perspectives of Their Academic Experiences. Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, 28 October 2016, p. MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Prev. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)2047-4873
ISSN (online)2047-4881
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles