How to format your references using the Microbes and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbes and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shoichet BK. Virtual screening of chemical libraries. Nature 2004;432:862–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olsen SR, Wilson RI. Lateral presynaptic inhibition mediates gain control in an olfactory circuit. Nature 2008;452:956–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuster JM, Bodner M, Kroger JK. Cross-modal and cross-temporal association in neurons of frontal cortex. Nature 2000;405:347–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sharpless NE, Bardeesy N, Lee KH, Carrasco D, Castrillon DH, Aguirre AJ, et al. Loss of p16Ink4a with retention of p19Arf predisposes mice to tumorigenesis. Nature 2001;413:86–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bell M. Incremental Software Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Dubey SP. Color Atlas of Head and Neck Surgery: A Step-by-Step Guide. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Cevasco R, Moreno D. Rural Landscapes: The Historical Roots of Biodiversity. In: Agnoletti M, editor. Italian Historical Rural Landscapes: Cultural Values for the Environment and Rural Development, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013, p. 141–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbes and Infection.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch This Fascinating Time-Lapse Of Hatching Bees. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Concerns Regarding the Structure and FCC’s Management of the E-Rate Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ELBoushi TC. Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR, Nechepurenko I. U.S. Is Warned After It Downs Syrian Fighter. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobes and Infection
AbbreviationMicrobes Infect.
ISSN (print)1286-4579
Infectious Diseases

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