How to format your references using the Microbes and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbes and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Telling G. Neurodegeneration: Evolved protection against human prions. Nature 2015;522:423–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuroda H, Maliga P. The plastid clpP1 protease gene is essential for plant development. Nature 2003;425:86–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Z, Xu B, Zhou H-J. Social cycling and conditional responses in the Rock-Paper-Scissors game. Sci Rep 2014;4:5830.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang PYT, Caspi L, Lam CKL, Chari M, Li X, Light PE, et al. Upper intestinal lipids trigger a gut-brain-liver axis to regulate glucose production. Nature 2008;452:1012–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cook M. Personnel Selection. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.
An edited book
Kim R. Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Vanacken L, Cuppens E, Clerckx T, Coninx K. Extending a Dialog Model with Contextual Knowledge. In: Winckler M, Johnson H, Palanque P, editors. Task Models and Diagrams for User Interface Design: 6th International Workshop, TAMODIA 2007, Toulouse, France, November 7-9, 2007. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 28–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbes and Infection.

Blog post
Andrew E. Nature’s Fireworks: The Best Meteor Showers Coming In 2015. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: Experience with Prior Migration and Modernization Efforts Provides Lessons Learned for New Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alimo CJ. From dialogue to action: The development of White racial allies. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harney J. A Hack for Dissidents: Cover the Phone’s Lens. New York Times 2016:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobes and Infection
AbbreviationMicrobes Infect.
ISSN (print)1286-4579
Infectious Diseases

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