How to format your references using the Microbes and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbes and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stafford N. Spy in the sky. Nature 2007;445:808–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Efferson C, Vogt S. Viewing men’s faces does not lead to accurate predictions of trustworthiness. Sci Rep 2013;3:1047.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haider B, Häusser M, Carandini M. Inhibition dominates sensory responses in the awake cortex. Nature 2013;493:97–100.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sugiura R, Kita A, Shimizu Y, Shuntoh H, Sio SO, Kuno T. Feedback regulation of MAPK signalling by an RNA-binding protein. Nature 2003;424:961–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S-C, Delbruck T, Indiveri G, Whatley A, Douglas R. Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Robyns B. Vector Control of Induction Machines: Desensitisation and Optimisation Through Fuzzy Logic. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou H, Wen B. Portable High Frequency Surface Wave Radar OSMAR-S. In: Leung H, Chandra Mukhopadhyay S, editors. Intelligent Environmental Sensing, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 79–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbes and Infection.

Blog post
Luntz S. Death Star Moon Could Have An Ocean. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Education Could Improve Direct Loan Program Customer Service and Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock M. Memoir as contemporary myth. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Where Everybody Knows Your Name (and Dad’s). New York Times 2017:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobes and Infection
AbbreviationMicrobes Infect.
ISSN (print)1286-4579
Infectious Diseases

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