How to format your references using the Microbes and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbes and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colombo P. Materials science. In praise of pores. Science 2008;322:381–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mather J, Mao M. Astronomy: A conversation about observation. Nature 2012;490:S5-7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foote AD, Osborne RW, Hoelzel AR. Environment: whale-call response to masking boat noise. Nature 2004;428:910.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dexter JP, Tamme MB, Lind CH, Collins E-MS. On-chip immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging. Sci Rep 2014;4:6388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abd-El-Barr M, El-Rewini H. Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Handa H, Ishibuchi H, Ong Y-S, Tan K-C, editors. Proceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems - Volume 2. vol. 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Zahiri S-H, Seyedin S-A. Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Designing Novel Classifiers. In: Coello CAC, Dehuri S, Ghosh S, editors. Swarm Intelligence for Multi-objective Problems in Data Mining, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 65–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbes and Infection.

Blog post
Andrew E. Study Suggests Fish Oil Supplements Don’t Prevent Mental Decline. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Services Integration: Results of a GAO Cosponsored Conference on Modernizing Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez J. Viviendo en las sombras: Examining the educational experiences of undocumented immigrant Latino students in a public secondary school setting. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Indians Get Contributions and Confidence From Unexpected Source. New York Times 2016:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobes and Infection
AbbreviationMicrobes Infect.
ISSN (print)1286-4579
Infectious Diseases

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