How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Konner M 2001 Bad words Nature 411 743
A journal article with 2 authors
Davies H M L and Manning J R 2008 Catalytic C-H functionalization by metal carbenoid and nitrenoid insertion Nature 451 417–24
A journal article with 3 authors
Woosley S E, Blinnikov S and Heger A 2007 Pulsational pair instability as an explanation for the most luminous supernovae Nature 450 390–2
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Urani A, Tan R, Rubele R and Mietchen D 2004 Scientists and societies: giving young European students a voice Nature 427 378

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski S E 2005 Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB® (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
McLuckie A 2009 Respiratory Disease and its Management (London: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Colussi I A 2014 The Role of Responsible Stewardship in Nanotechnology and Synthetic Biology Responsibility in Nanotechnology Development The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology ed S Arnaldi, A Ferrari, P Magaudda and F Marin (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 53–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Test Track To Be Built For Elon Musk’s Hyperloop Train IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2008 NASA Workforce: Briefing on National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Use of Term Appointments (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tornes I E 2006 Topics in the Physics of Underdamped Josephson Systems Doctoral dissertation (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J 2017 Dodgers, Mindful of Last Year’s Failure, Start Quickly Against Cubs New York Times SP6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles