How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moltz J C 2011 Technology: Asia’s space race Nature 480 171–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Shidara M and Richmond B J 2002 Anterior cingulate: single neuronal signals related to degree of reward expectancy Science 296 1709–11
A journal article with 3 authors
Iacopino V, Allen S A and Keller A S 2011 Ethics. Bad science used to support torture and human experimentation Science 331 34–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Yang H, Li J-J, Liu S, Zhao J, Jiang Y-J, Song A-X and Hu H-Y 2014 Aggregation of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 sequesters its specific interacting partners into inclusions: implication in a loss-of-function pathology Sci. Rep. 4 6410

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lado E P 2016 The Common Fisheries Policy (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Schabacker M, Gericke K, Szélig N and Vajna S 2015 Modelling and Management of Engineering Processes: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference 2013 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Biswas P and Langdon P 2015 Inclusive User Modeling and Simulation A Multimodal End-2-End Approach to Accessible Computing Human–Computer Interaction Series ed P Biswas, C Duarte, P Langdon and L Almeida (London: Springer) pp 91–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Taub B 2016 Explosive Rage Linked To Decreased Connectivity Between Key Brain Regions IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998 FCC: Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services Licensees (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks-Harris M T 2012 Quality Induction: The Effects of Comprehensive Induction on New Teacher Retention and Job Satisfaction Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B 2016 Bill Is Passed to Ban Bots That Ticket Scalpers Use New York Times B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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