How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Samardzija M R 2007 Science and law. The obvious war Science 315 190–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Jia C L and Urban K 2004 Atomic-resolution measurement of oxygen concentration in oxide materials Science 303 2001–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Kawase H, Okata Y and Ito K 2013 Role of huge geometric circular structures in the reproduction of a marine pufferfish Sci. Rep. 3 2106
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chakhalian J, Freeland J W, Habermeier H-U, Cristiani G, Khaliullin G, van Veenendaal M and Keimer B 2007 Orbital reconstruction and covalent bonding at an oxide interface Science 318 1114–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradley D 2015 Managing Minor Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Nambiar R and Poess M 2009 Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking: First TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2009, Lyon, France, August 24-28, 2009, Revised Selected Papers vol 5895 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Thotahewa K M S, Redouté J-M and Yuce M R 2014 An Ultra-Wideband Sensor Node Development with Dual-Frequency Band for Medical Signal Monitoring Ultra Wideband Wireless Body Area Networks ed J-M Redouté and M R Yuce (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 83–115

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Two-Headed Dolphin Washes Up On Turkish Beach IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988 Railroad Safety: Reporting Time Frames and Results of Post-Accident Drug Tests (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman T F 2010 A descriptive review of the development and implementation of a funding model for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The first 10 years, 1998–2008 Doctoral dissertation (Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by 2005 Arts, Briefly; Russian Art Sets Records in London New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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