How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tammann G A 2010 Allan Sandage (1926-2010) Nature 468 898
A journal article with 2 authors
Constantinople C M and Bruno R M 2013 Deep cortical layers are activated directly by thalamus Science 340 1591–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Brohawn S G, del Mármol J and MacKinnon R 2012 Crystal structure of the human K2P TRAAK, a lipid- and mechano-sensitive K+ ion channel Science 335 436–41
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhao H, Holladay J E, Brown H and Zhang Z C 2007 Metal chlorides in ionic liquid solvents convert sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural Science 316 1597–600

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather P M and Koch M 2011 Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Rieves R A 2012 Investor Relations for the Emerging Company ed J Lefebvre (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US)
A chapter in an edited book
Christen P, Vatsalan D and Fu Z 2015 Advanced Record Linkage Methods and Privacy Aspects for Population Reconstruction—A Survey and Case Studies Population Reconstruction ed G Bloothooft, P Christen, K Mandemakers and M Schraagen (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 87–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Andrew D 2016 Study Shows Direct Manipulation Of Brain Can Reverse Effects Of Depression IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1974 Federal Organization for Science and Technology (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lara C 2015 Bullying victimization among adolescent students: A qualitative study Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Wang V and Piccoli S 2017 3 Men From Shelter Held in Sexual Assault on Woman Leaving Church New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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