How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ingebritsen S E 2012 Geochemistry. Modeling the formation of porphyry-copper ores Science 338 1551–2
A journal article with 2 authors
Rejec T and Meir Y 2006 Magnetic impurity formation in quantum point contacts Nature 442 900–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Granot J, Nakar E and Piran T 2003 Astrophysics: refreshed shocks from a gamma-ray burst Nature 426 138–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Schwarz J P, Gao R S, Perring A E, Spackman J R and Fahey D W 2013 Black carbon aerosol size in snow Sci. Rep. 3 1356

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lado E P 2016 The Common Fisheries Policy (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Budd A 2006 Blog Design Solutions ed S Collison, C J Davis, M Heilemann, J Oxton, D Powers, R Rutter and P Sherry (Berkeley, CA: Apress)
A chapter in an edited book
Fazli S, Danóczy M, Popescu F, Blankertz B and Müller K-R 2010 Using Rest Class and Control Paradigms for Brain Computer Interfacing Brain-Computer Interfaces: Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction Human-Computer Interaction Series ed D S Tan and A Nijholt (London: Springer) pp 55–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 The Deep Influence Of The A-Bomb On Anime And Manga IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991 U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adrian D E 2009 School scheduling models and the achievement of at-risk students: A causal-comparative study Doctoral dissertation (Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J 2017 Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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