How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fairclough S 2014 Physiological data must remain confidential Nature 505 263
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang Z and Becker H 2013 Ratios of S, Se and Te in the silicate Earth require a volatile-rich late veneer Nature 499 328–31
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffery W R, Strickler A G and Yamamoto Y 2004 Migratory neural crest-like cells form body pigmentation in a urochordate embryo Nature 431 696–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Lellouch E, Paubert G, Moses J I, Schneider N M and Strobel D F 2003 Volcanically emitted sodium chloride as a source for Io’s neutral clouds and plasma torus Nature 421 45–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
d’Andria A and Gabarret I 2017 Building 21st Century Entrepreneurship (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Gulizia M M 2005 Emerging Pathologies in Cardiology: Proceedings of the Mediterranean Cardiology Meeting (Taormina, April 7–9, 2005) (Milano: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Broszat M and Grohmann E 2014 Horizontal Gene Transfer in Planktonic and Biofilm Modes Antibiofilm Agents: From Diagnosis to Treatment and Prevention Springer Series on Biofilms ed K P Rumbaugh and I Ahmad (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 67–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Luntz S 2014 Meteorite Find May Be The Key To Evolutionary Event IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2017 Aviation Security: TSA Does Not Have Valid Evidence Supporting Most of the Revised Behavioral Indicators Used in Its Behavior Detection Activities (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckheimer I 2012 Mapping habitat quality in conservation’s neglected geography Doctoral dissertation (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S 2015 America’s Tea Culture Blossoms New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles