How to format your references using the European Journal of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trono D 2003 Virology. Picking the right spot Science 300 1670–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka M and Sackmann E 2005 Polymer-supported membranes as models of the cell surface Nature 437 656–63
A journal article with 3 authors
Barsh G S, Farooqi I S and O’Rahilly S 2000 Genetics of body-weight regulation Nature 404 644–51
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Goyenvalle A, Vulin A, Fougerousse F, Leturcq F, Kaplan J-C, Garcia L and Danos O 2004 Rescue of dystrophic muscle through U7 snRNA-mediated exon skipping Science 306 1796–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dormieux L and Kondo D 2016 Micromechanics of Fracture and Damage (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Jacko J A 2011 Human-Computer Interaction. Towards Mobile and Intelligent Interaction Environments: 14th International Conference, HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part III vol 6763 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Rzany B 2007 Injection Technique Botulinum Toxin in Aesthetic Medicine ed M de Maio and B Rzany (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 25–6

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 US Military Screwed Up And Accidentally Sent Live Anthrax to Labs IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1985 Information on the Energy Information Administration’s Financial Reporting System (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desai S S 2013 CFD simuation of flow past a rotating circular cylinder with an end plate Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C 2011 Drafthouse Founder Tries Hand at Film Distribution New York Times A37B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Physics
AbbreviationEur. J. Phys.
ISSN (print)0143-0807
ISSN (online)1361-6404
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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