How to format your references using the BioMedical Engineering OnLine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMedical Engineering OnLine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Russo E. Victims of success. Nature. 2003;422:354–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Meinhart A, Cramer P. Recognition of RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by 3’-RNA-processing factors. Nature. 2004;430:223–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Khashan SA, Alazzam A, Furlani EP. Computational analysis of enhanced magnetic bioseparation in microfluidic systems with flow-invasive magnetic elements. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5299.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gill RA, Polley HW, Johnson HB, Anderson LJ, Maherali H, Jackson RB. Nonlinear grassland responses to past and future atmospheric CO(2). Nature. 2002;417:279–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Henderson GR. Six Sigma Quality Improvement with Minitab. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Swanson DA. Estimating Characteristics of the Foreign-Born by Legal Status: An Evaluation of Data and Methods. Judson DH, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rubbia C. Proton-Antiproton Colliders. In: Alvarez-Gaumé L, Mangano M, Tsesmelis E, editors. From the PS to the LHC - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMedical Engineering OnLine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Blood Donors In Sweden Get A Text Whenever They Save A Life [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/blood-donors-sweden-get-text-whenever-their-blood-flows-another-human/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Explosives Detection Canines: TSA Has Taken Steps to Analyze Canine Team Data and Assess the Effectiveness of Passenger Screening Canines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-695T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thixton HL. Identification of Site-Specific Mycorrhizal Fungi Associates of the Federally Threatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) in Illinois [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Detrick B. The Flower Shop. New York Times. 2017 Apr 11;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMedical Engineering OnLine
AbbreviationBiomed. Eng. Online
ISSN (online)1475-925X
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Biomaterials
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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