How to format your references using the BioMedical Engineering OnLine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMedical Engineering OnLine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lawler A. In search of Green Arabia. Science. 2014;345:994–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Vinnikov KY, Grody NC. Global warming trend of mean tropospheric temperature observed by satellites. Science. 2003;302:269–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Azuma S, Katayama I, Nakakuki T. Rheological decoupling at the Moho and implication to Venusian tectonics. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4403.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Choi JS, Kim J-S, Byun I-S, Lee DH, Lee MJ, Park BH, et al. Friction anisotropy-driven domain imaging on exfoliated monolayer graphene. Science. 2011;333:607–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H. Design of Steel Structures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1. Wang PP, Ruan D, Kerre EE, editors. Fuzzy Logic: A Spectrum of Theoretical & Practical Issues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Osipov G, Smirnov I, Tikhomirov I, Sochenkov I, Shelmanov A, Shvets A. Information Retrieval for R&D support. In: Paltoglou G, Loizides F, Hansen P, editors. Professional Search in the Modern World: COST Action IC1002 on Multilingual and Multifaceted Interactive Information Access. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 45–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMedical Engineering OnLine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Cyber Security Experts Hacked Into A MOVING CAR And Took Control [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/cyber-security-experts-hacked-moving-car-and-took-control/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Apr. Report No.: GAO-14-556T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McCarthy BA. Mentoring’s critical components: Four traditional teachers’, four alternate -route teachers’, and four mentors’ perspectives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Howard JC, Kovaleski SF. Atticus, Here’s Drama on Your Turf. New York Times. 2016 Apr 18;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMedical Engineering OnLine
AbbreviationBiomed. Eng. Online
ISSN (online)1475-925X
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Biomaterials
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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