How to format your references using the BioMedical Engineering OnLine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioMedical Engineering OnLine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bosch X. Radical changes urged for Spanish universities. Nature. 2000;404:425–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Crida A, Charnoz S. Formation of regular satellites from ancient massive rings in the solar system. Science. 2012;338:1196–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Butov LV, Gossard AC, Chemla DS. Macroscopically ordered state in an exciton system. Nature. 2002;418:751–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu M, Duke JL, Richter DJ, Vinuesa CG, Goodnow CC, Kleinstein SH, et al. Two levels of protection for the B cell genome during somatic hypermutation. Nature. 2008;451:841–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McMaster MC. LC/MS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Magnusson C, Szymczak D, Brewster S, editors. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 7th International Conference, HAID 2012, Lund, Sweden, August 23-24, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lau KC, Curtiss LA, Chan MKY, Greeley JP. Atomistic and First Principles: Computational Studies of LiO2 Batteries. In: Imanishi N, Luntz AC, Bruce P, editors. The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 159–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioMedical Engineering OnLine.

Blog post
1. Evans K. Women’s Importance In Space Science Recognized By New NASA Website [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/womens-importance-in-space-flight-recognized-by-new-nasa-website/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. El Salvador: Pipeline of U.S. Aid as of August 1990. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-90-285FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fisher JD. A profile of the chief student affairs officers of the California State University system [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwirtz M, Winerip M. In Beatings, Inmates Feared a ‘Captain America.’ New York Times. 2015 Oct 2;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioMedical Engineering OnLine
AbbreviationBiomed. Eng. Online
ISSN (online)1475-925X
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Biomaterials
General Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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