How to format your references using the European Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scott JC. Materials science. Is there an immortal memory? Science. 2004; 304: 62–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akiyama T, Gibson MC. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing. Nature. 2015; 527: 375–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Unterreithmeier QP, Weig EM, Kotthaus JP. Universal transduction scheme for nanomechanical systems based on dielectric forces. Nature. 2009; 458: 1001–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gerlach B, Cordier SM, Schmukle AC, et al. Linear ubiquitination prevents inflammation and regulates immune signalling. Nature. 2011; 471: 591–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akers RM. Lactation and the Mammary Gland. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company; 2016.
An edited book
Hoalst-Pullen N, Patterson MW, editors. Geospatial Technologies in Environmental Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. XIV, 214 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Piper AJ, Hollier CA. Nocturnal Noninvasive Ventilation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. In: Basner RC, Parthasarathy S, editors. Nocturnal Non-Invasive Ventilation: Theory, Evidence, and Clinical Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015. p. 83–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Nature’s Fireworks: The Best Meteor Showers Coming In 2015 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Local Coordination Prevents Duplication of Services at Federally Sponsored Indian Education Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz E. School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Express Skepticism in a Discrimination Case. New York Times. 2007; : A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationEur. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1120-6721
ISSN (online)1724-6016
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles