How to format your references using the European Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dennis C. Baiting plan to remove fox threat to Tasmanian wildlife. Nature. 2002; 416: 357.
A journal article with 2 authors
Temeles EJ, Kress WJ. Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association. Science. 2003; 300: 630–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Enquist BJ, Haskell JP, Tiffney BH. General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities. Nature. 2002; 419: 610–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stappers BW, Gaensler BM, Kaspi VM, van der Klis M, Lewin WHG. An x-ray nebula associated with the millisecond pulsar B1957+20. Science. 2003; 299: 1372–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Muccini M, Toffanin S. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Ravi V, Panigrahi BK, Das S, Suganthan PN, editors. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fuzzy and Neuro Computing (FANCCO - 2015). 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIII, 366 p. 145 illus., 102 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Chubarikov VN. On the Hilbert-Kamke and the Vinogradov Problems in Additive Number Theory. In: Zhang W, Tanigawa Y, editors. Number Theory: Tradition and Modernization. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 27–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Identify The Genes Responsible For Cannabis’ Distinct Flavor [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology Development: Future Use of NASA’s Large Format Camera Is Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wong AN. The model minority at risk: Barriers to mental health access for Chinese Americans [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Made for Prowling. New York Times. 2010; : E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationEur. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1120-6721
ISSN (online)1724-6016
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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