How to format your references using the American Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
El-Azab A. Materials science. The statistical mechanics of strain-hardened metals. Science. 2008;320(5884):1729–1730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Svetlizky I, Fineberg J. Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion. Nature. 2014;509(7499):205–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dankert A, Dulal RS, Dash SP. Efficient spin injection into silicon and the role of the Schottky barrier. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:3196.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dor Y, Brown J, Martinez OI, et al. Adult pancreatic beta-cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem-cell differentiation. Nature. 2004;429(6987):41–46.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner D. Trading ETFs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Dragicevic N, Maibach HI, eds. Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement: Nanocarriers. 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016 XVI, 384 p. 132 illus., 70 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrade JM, Astudillo CA, Paredes R. Metric Space Searching Based on Random Bisectors and Binary Fingerprints. In: Traina AJM, Traina C, Cordeiro RLF, eds. Similarity Search and Applications: 7th International Conference, SISAP 2014, Los Cabos, Mexico, October 29-31, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:50–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Taub B. Dark Web Drug Dealers Have Been Giving Away Their Locations With Geo-Tagged Photos. IFLScience. 2016;( (Accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Training: FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors Are Not Receiving Needed Training. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deshpande AS. Efficient idempotent methods for optimal control [Doctoral dissertation]. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams G, Kakissis J, Ferren A, et al. 15 Cities, Wrapped in a Bow, for Under $100. New York Times. 2011;TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0002-9262
ISSN (online)1476-6256

Other styles