How to format your references using the American Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Radford T. Of course scientists can communicate. Nature. 2011;469(7331):445.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Abbott A, Schiermeier Q. Deep roots of Nazi science revealed. Nature. 2000;407(6806):823–824.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Oka Y, Ye M, Zuker CS. Thirst driving and suppressing signals encoded by distinct neural populations in the brain. Nature. 2015;520(7547):349–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Grashoff C, Hoffman BD, Brenner MD, et al. Measuring mechanical tension across vinculin reveals regulation of focal adhesion dynamics. Nature. 2010;466(7303):263–266.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Baudin P. Wireless Transceiver Architecture. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Segers RT, ed. Multinational Management: A Casebook on Asia’s Global Market Leaders. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016 XIV, 363 p. 93 illus., 8 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Parker G. Punctuated Anytime Learning for Autonomous Agent Control. In: El-Osery A, Prevost J, eds. Control and Systems Engineering: A Report on Four Decades of Contributions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:89–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. What The Color Of Your Snot Says About Your Health. IFLScience. 2015;(https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/decoding-snot-what-color-says-about-your-health/). (Accessed October 30, 2018)

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Investing in the Very Young. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ennaco WA. Mastering morphosyntax: A pre-experimental study on the effectiveness of a parent-training program for preschoolaged children with specific language impairment [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gustines GG. Robert Kirkman Plans New Comic Book Series. New York Times. 2017;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0002-9262
ISSN (online)1476-6256
ScopeEpidemiology

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