How to format your references using the American Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Nilsen TW. Molecular biology. Internal mRNA methylation finally finds functions. Science. 2014;343(6176):1207–1208.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Robles-De-La-Torre G, Hayward V. Force can overcome object geometry in the perception of shape through active touch. Nature. 2001;412(6845):445–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bylicka B, Chruściński D, Maniscalco S. Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Zabow G, Dodd S, Moreland J, et al. Micro-engineered local field control for high-sensitivity multispectral MRI. Nature. 2008;453(7198):1058–1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Scott AW, Frobenius R. RF Measurements for Cellular Phones and Wireless Data Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Özcan A, Chaki N, Nagamalai D, eds. Recent Trends in Wireless and Mobile Networks: Second International Conference, WiMo 2010, Ankara, Turkey, June 26-28, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010 X, 446 p. 183 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chiang CC, Kawa J. Variability & Parametric Yield. In: Kawa J, ed. Design for Manufacturability and Yield for Nano-Scale CMOS. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007:151–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Life Could Be Possible On Sideways Exoplanet If It Has Oceans. IFLScience. 2014;(https://www.iflscience.com/space/life-could-be-possible-sideways-exoplanet-if-it-has-oceans/). (Accessed October 30, 2018)

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Davis TE. Sedimentation solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gustines GG. From Insider, a Comics Venture to Help Newcomers. New York Times. 2010;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0002-9262
ISSN (online)1476-6256
ScopeEpidemiology

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