How to format your references using the American Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Medical research masterclass. Nature. 2011;478(7368):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akiyama BM, Stone MD. Structural biology: a solution to the telomerase puzzle. Nature. 2013;496(7444):177–178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Makarieva AM, Gorshkov VG, Li B-L. Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science. 2009;325(5945):1206; author reply 1206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuwatani T, Nagata K, Okada M, et al. Machine-learning techniques for geochemical discrimination of 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:7077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous A. Applied Metrology for Manufacturing Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Martens B, Brown A, eds. Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005: Proceedings of the 11th International CAAD Futures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, on June 20–22, 2005. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005 XII, 482 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Isobe Y, Moller F, Nguyen HN, et al. Safety and Line Capacity in Railways – An Approach in Timed CSP. In: Derrick J, Gnesi S, Latella D, et al., eds. Integrated Formal Methods: 9th International Conference, IFM 2012, Pisa, Italy, June 18-21, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:54–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Reveal How A Zombifying Virus Manipulates Its Caterpillar Host. IFLScience. 2014;( (Accessed October 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Department of Energy’s Office of Science Uses a Multilayered Process for Prioritizing Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruby CA. Application of Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to Remotely Operated Vehicle (Rov) Video Data for Enhanced Geospatial Analysis of Deep Sea Environments [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. Price-Fixing Inquiry Moves From BMW to Daimler and VW. New York Times. 2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0002-9262
ISSN (online)1476-6256

Other styles