How to format your references using the European Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Boyd RW. Nuclear physics: Neutrons with a twist. Nature. 2015;525:462–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wohlers A, Wood BJ. A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle (142)Nd. Nature. 2015;520:337–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gwak G, Ko J, Ju H. Effects of porous properties on cold-start behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cells from sub-zero to normal operating temperatures. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5770.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bond DR, Holmes DE, Tender LM, Lovley DR. Electrode-reducing microorganisms that harvest energy from marine sediments. Science. 2002;295:483–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Strome TL. Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Hildt E, Franke AG, editors. Cognitive Enhancement: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stanev EV, Lu X. European Semi-enclosed Seas: Basic Physical Processes and Their Numerical Modelling. In: Soomere T, Quak E, editors. Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection: Towards the Use of Ocean Dynamics for Pollution Control. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 131–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Manufacturing Glass Could Reduce Nuclear Waste By 90% [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Stock Market Automation: Exchanges Have Increased Systems’ Capacities Since the 1987 Market Crash. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 May. Report No.: IMTEC-91-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Roberson KL. Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Biersdorfer JD, Couturier K. Treasure Your Photos and Music? A Guide to Backing Up Critical Data. New York Times. 2017 Mar 31;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Medical Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Med. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-783X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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