How to format your references using the European Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kong X. China must protect high-quality arable land. Nature. 2014;506:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. French SW, Romanowicz B. Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature. 2015;525:95–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Blundy J, Cashman K, Humphreys M. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes. Nature. 2006;443:76–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhao X, Shi Q, Gray MR, Xu C. New vanadium compounds in Venezuela heavy crude oil detected by positive-ion electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mitra A. Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Jaafar A, Mohamad Ali N, Mohd Noah SA, Smeaton AF, Bruza P, Bakar ZA, et al., editors. Information Retrieval Technology: 10th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2014, Kuching, Malaysia, December 3-5, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Scheidler A, Merkle D, Middendorf M. Congestion Control in Ant Like Moving Agent Systems. In: Hinchey M, Pagnoni A, Rammig FJ, Schmeck H, editors. Biologically-Inspired Collaborative Computing: IFIP 20th World Computer Congress, Second IFIP TC 10 International Conference on Biologically-Inspired Collaborative Computing, September 8–9, 2008, Milano, Italy. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Not Too Brutish: Neanderthals Hunted Pigeons [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Resources: Problems Persist in Justice’s ADP Management and Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Nov. Report No.: IMTEC-91-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Schroeder M. Investigating the Learnability of a Rogue Grammar: Null Subject Parameter Resetting in Second Language Acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Silver N. Let’s Play Medalball! New York Times. 2012 Jul 18;MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Medical Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Med. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-783X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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