How to format your references using the European Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Medical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grimaldi D. Paleontology. Pushing back amber production. Science. 2009;326:51–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jørgensen HF, Fisher AG. Can controversies be put to REST? Nature. 2010;467:E3-4; discussion E5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bunge J, Epstein SS, Peterson DG. Comment on “Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil.” Science. 2006;313:918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hwang D, Kim DY, Jo SM, Armel V, MacFarlane DR, Kim D, et al. Highly efficient plastic crystal ionic conductors for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3520.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Arboleda H, Royer J-C. Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kreuer K-D, editor. Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lee CH, Cho YJ. Framework of a Collaboration-Based Engineering Service System for Mould Industry. In: Gervasi O, Gavrilova ML, editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2007: International Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 26-29, 2007 Proceedings Part III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Figures Show No Mass Shootings In Australia Since Gun Control Laws Were Introduced 20 Years Ago [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Performance Management in Higher Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jul. Report No.: 094664.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Greenfield Pace JA. The influence of accountability and commitment on team performance of airline flight crews [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. The Life and Times Of a Young Rock Band. New York Times. 1995 Jul 23;131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Medical Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Med. Res.
ISSN (online)2047-783X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles