How to format your references using the Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (MPMI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang, T. 2011. Advancing global health research through digital technology and sharing data. Science. 331:714–717
A journal article with 2 authors
Hiiragi, T., and Solter, D. 2004. First cleavage plane of the mouse egg is not predetermined but defined by the topology of the two apposing pronuclei. Nature. 430:360–364
A journal article with 3 authors
Bockrath, C., Ballhaus, C., and Holzheid, A. 2004. Fractionation of the platinum-group elements during mantle melting. Science. 305:1951–1953
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, E. S., Zhang, K., Nicolas, E., Cam, H. P., Zofall, M., and Grewal, S. I. S. 2008. Cell cycle control of centromeric repeat transcription and heterochromatin assembly. Nature. 451:734–737

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alrifai, T. 2015. Islamic Finance and the New Financial System. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Larusson, J. A., and White, B., eds. 2014. Learning Analytics: From Research to Practice. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, H., Silva, E. A., and Wang, Q. 2015. The Foundation for Agent-Based Modelling: Empirical Evidence of Creative Industries’ Interactions with Urban Land Use in Nanjing. Pages 53–100 in: Creative Industries and Urban Spatial Structure: Agent-based Modelling of the Dynamics in Nanjing, Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research. E.A. Silva and Q. Wang, eds. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Supercomputer Simulation Of Milky Way Solves Mystery Of Missing Dwarf Galaxies. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Commercial Passenger Vehicles: Safety Inspection of Commercial Buses and Vans Entering the United States From Mexico. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mhatre, A. B. 2009. Zone-Clipper.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017. Battered Mets Survive the Nationals. New York Times. :D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lang 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lang 2011; Hiiragi and Solter 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hiiragi and Solter 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
AbbreviationMol. Plant. Microbe. Interact.
ISSN (print)0894-0282
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

Other styles