How to format your references using the Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (MPMI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patten, Lord. 2006. Europe pays the price for spending less. Nature. 441:691–693
A journal article with 2 authors
Culjkovic-Kraljacic, B., and Borden, K. L. B. 2010. Cell biology. Puzzled by PML. Science. 330:1183–1184
A journal article with 3 authors
Blin, A., Cissé, I., and Bockelmann, U. 2014. Electronic hybridization detection in microarray format and DNA genotyping. Sci. Rep. 4:4194
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walker, L. M., Huber, M., Doores, K. J., Falkowska, E., Pejchal, R., Julien, J.-P., Wang, S.-K., Ramos, A., Chan-Hui, P.-Y., Moyle, M., Mitcham, J. L., Hammond, P. W., Olsen, O. A., Phung, P., Fling, S., Wong, C.-H., Phogat, S., Wrin, T., Simek, M. D., Protocol G Principal Investigators, Koff, W. C., Wilson, I. A., Burton, D. R., and Poignard, P. 2011. Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies. Nature. 477:466–470

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaduri, S., and Mukesh, D. 2014. Homogeneous Catalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ball, J. A., Bolotnikov, V., Rodman, L., Spitkovsky, I. M., and Helton, J. W., eds. 2010. Topics in Operator Theory: Volume 2: Systems and Mathematical Physics Proceedings of the XIXth International Workshop on Operator Theory and its Applications, College of William and Mary, 2008. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, X.-J., Hökfelt, T., and Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. 2010. Galanin and Spinal Pain Mechanisms: Past, Present, and Future. Pages 39–50 in: Galanin, Experientia Supplementum. T. Hökfelt, ed. Springer, Basel.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. A New Parasite Is Infecting Tadpoles Across Three Continents. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Job Training Partnership Act: Racial and Gender Disparities in Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, M. W. 2017. Popular Culture and War in the Vietnam Era.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Biersdorfer, J. D., and Couturier, K. 2017. Treasure Your Photos and Music? A Guide to Backing Up Critical Data. New York Times. :B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Patten 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Patten 2006; Culjkovic-Kraljacic and Borden 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Culjkovic-Kraljacic and Borden 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Walker et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
AbbreviationMol. Plant. Microbe. Interact.
ISSN (print)0894-0282
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

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