How to format your references using the Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (MPMI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, J. 2011. Chemistry. High-throughput discovery of new chemical reactions. Science. 333:1387–1388
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramos, S. B. V., and Laederach, A. 2014. Molecular biology: A second layer of information in RNA. Nature. 505:621–622
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks, H. E., Carbin, G. W., and Marsh, P. T. 2014. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States. Science. 346:349–352
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Niemi, M. E. K., Martin, H. C., Rice, D. L., Gallone, G., Gordon, S., Kelemen, M., McAloney, K., McRae, J., Radford, E. J., Yu, S., Gecz, J., Martin, N. G., Wright, C. F., Fitzpatrick, D. R., Firth, H. V., Hurles, M. E., and Barrett, J. C. 2018. Common genetic variants contribute to risk of rare severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature. 562:268–271

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kossiakoff, A., and Sweet, W. N. 2005. Systems Engineering Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vega, W. A., Markides, K. S., Angel, J. L., and Torres-Gil, F. M., eds. 2015. Challenges of Latino Aging in the Americas. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
García-Vidal, J., Guerrero-Zapata, M., Morillo-Pozo, J., and Fusté-Vilella, D. 2007. A Protocol Stack for Cooperative Wireless Networks. Pages 62–72 in: Wireless Systems and Mobility in Next Generation Internet: Third International Workshop of the EURO-NGI Network of Excellence, Sitges, Spain, June 6-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. J. García-Vidal and L. Cerdà-Alabern, eds. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2015. Watch This Octopus Create Quicksand. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Department of Education: Status of Actions to Improve the Management of Student Financial Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gates, D. A. 2017. Best Practices and Strategies for Financial Literacy in Faith-Based Organizations.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. 2017. They’re Like a Sitcom. Really. New York Times. :C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Montgomery 2011; Ramos and Laederach 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramos and Laederach 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Niemi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
AbbreviationMol. Plant. Microbe. Interact.
ISSN (print)0894-0282
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
General Medicine

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