How to format your references using the New Zealand Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Zealand Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schübeler D (2012). Molecular biology. Epigenetic islands in a genetic ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338:756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doudna JA, Cech TR (2002). The chemical repertoire of natural ribozymes. Nature 418:222–228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM (2006). Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 444:840–846.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wolpoff MH, Hawks J, Frayer DW, Hunley K (2001). Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291:293–297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen KL, Zenobia KE (2011). Civil Engineer’s Handbook of Professional Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Saitoh S (2016). Theory of Reproducing Kernels and Applications. Y Sawano, editor. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Durand S, Gaujal B (2016). Complexity and Optimality of the Best Response Algorithm in Random Potential Games. In M Gairing and R Savani, editors Algorithmic Game Theory: 9th International Symposium, SAGT 2016, Liverpool, UK, September 19–21, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 40–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Zealand Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Living Longer, Sicker Lives? Make Lifestyle Changes To Remain Healthier In Old Age. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Gas Pipeline Safety: Guidance and More Information Needed before Using Risk-Based Reassessment Intervals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doddick S (2012). Noncontact 2D Plethysmography: A non-invasive technique for monitoring dynamic trends in a respiratory system. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Krauss C (2015). Breakdown at BP Refinery Strains Midwest Gas Prices. New York Times:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schübeler, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Schübeler, 2012; Doudna and Cech, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doudna and Cech, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wolpoff et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Zealand Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8047

Other styles