How to format your references using the New Zealand Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Zealand Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam D (2002). Royal Institution’s director blasts scientific sexism. Nature 420:453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keegstra K, Walton J (2006). Plant science. Beta-glucans--brewer’s bane, dietician’s delight. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311:1872–1873.
A journal article with 3 authors
Séguin B, Singer PA, Daar AS (2006). Science community: scientific diasporas. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312:1602–1603.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Quesenberry PJ, Dooner G, Dooner M, Abedi M (2005). Developmental biology: Ignoratio elenchi: red herrings in stem cell research. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308:1121–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards DW (2014). Risk Management in Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Thampi SM, Zomaya AY, Strufe T, Alcaraz Calero JM, Thomas T, editors (2012). Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security: International Conference, SNDS 2012, Trivandrum, India, October 11-12, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Farinha J, Trigueiros MJ (2007). An Extensible Metadata Framework for Data Quality Assessment of Composite Structures. In IY Song, J Eder, and TM Nguyen, editors Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 9th International Conference, DaWaK 2007, Regensburg Germany, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 34–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Zealand Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Recently Identified “DNA Clock” Helps Predict Mortality. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Tax System Modernization: Issues Facing IRS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zurheide PK (2009). Hydromorphology of anomalous bright loamy soils on the mid-Atlantic coastal plain. [Doctoral dissertation]. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017). An Aria for the Little Rock Nine. New York Times:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2002; Keegstra and Walton, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keegstra and Walton, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Quesenberry et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Zealand Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8047

Other styles