How to format your references using the New Zealand Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Zealand Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vaughan DG (2005). Oceans. How does the Antarctic ice sheet affect sea level rise? Science (New York, N.Y.) 308:1877–1878.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuur EAG, Abbott B (2011). Climate change: High risk of permafrost thaw. Nature 480:32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YG, Pagani M, Liu Z (2014). Response to Comment on “A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346:1467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miller MA, Nguyen VQ, Lee MH, Kosinski M, Schedl T, Caprioli RM, et al. (2001). A sperm cytoskeletal protein that signals oocyte meiotic maturation and ovulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291:2144–2147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marage J-P, Mori Y (2013). Sonar and Underwater Acoustics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jensen K, Aalst WM van der, Ajmone Marsan M, Franceschinis G, Kleijn J, Kristensen LM, editors (2012). Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency VI. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsoi C-W (2007). Development of a Cross-Domain Web-based GIS Platform to Support Surveillance and Control of Communicable Diseases. In PC Lai and ASH Mak, editors GIS for Health and the Environment: Development in the Asia-Pacific Region With 110 Figures. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 44–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Zealand Dental Journal.

Blog post
Fang J (2015). NASA’s 10-Engine Aircraft Takes Off Like a Helicopter, Flies Like a Plane. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Observations on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2001 Performance Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore BA (2010). The Writing Machine. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Scheiber N (2016). Fight for $15 Widens Focus. New York Times:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Olveczky, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chipman, 2007; Gerya, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schuur and Abbott, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Zealand Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8047

Other styles