How to format your references using the New Zealand Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Zealand Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodges KV (2012). IBI series winner. Solving complex problems. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338:1164–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson EH, Erwin DH (2006). Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311:796–800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gizon L, Duvall TL, Schou J (2003). Wave-like properties of solar supergranulation. Nature 421:43–44.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu K, Victora GD, Schwickert TA, Guermonprez P, Meredith MM, Yao K, et al. (2009). In vivo analysis of dendritic cell development and homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324:392–397.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Altman MC (2011). Kant and Applied Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Pihlström S (2016). Kantian Antitheodicy: Philosophical and Literary Varieties. S Kivistö, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jurdziński T (2008). Leftist Grammars Are Non-primitive Recursive. In L Aceto, I Damgård, LA Goldberg, MM Halldórsson, A Ingólfsdóttir, and I Walukiewicz, editors Automata, Languages and Programming: 35th International Colloquium, ICALP 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland, July 7-11, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Zealand Dental Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017). Astronomical Observations Might Be The First Clue Of Foam Space-Time. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). VA Information Technology: Progress Continues Although Vulnerabilities Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkins D (2015). The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator. [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010). When Artist Becomes Muse. New York Times:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodges, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hodges, 2012; Davidson and Erwin, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davidson and Erwin, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Zealand Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8047

Other styles