How to format your references using the New Zealand Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Zealand Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2008). Singapore surges upwards. Nature 455:1144–1146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linkenhoker BA, Knudsen EI (2002). Incremental training increases the plasticity of the auditory space map in adult barn owls. Nature 419:293–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell MD, Vickery PJ, Reinhold TA (2003). Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones. Nature 422:279–283.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gunawardane LS, Saito K, Nishida KM, Miyoshi K, Kawamura Y, Nagami T, et al. (2007). A slicer-mediated mechanism for repeat-associated siRNA 5’ end formation in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315:1587–1590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held T (2014). In-situ-Verfahren zur Boden- und Grundwassersanierung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hirsch MJ, Pardalos PM, Murphey R, editors (2010). Dynamics of Information Systems: Theory and Applications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu J, Wang X (2011). Discrete Sliding Mode Control. In X Wang, editor Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems: Design, Analysis and MATLAB Simulation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 97–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Zealand Dental Journal.

Blog post
Fang J (2015). Polar Bears are Moving North Where There’s Year-Round Sea Ice. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: Additional Actions Needed to Strengthen Grants Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis PJ (2009). A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa. [Doctoral dissertation]. Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2016). Friday File: Recalling Batman’s Star Turn at Shea Stadium in ’66. New York Times:C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2008; Linkenhoker and Knudsen, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Linkenhoker and Knudsen, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Gunawardane et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Zealand Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8047

Other styles