How to format your references using the New Zealand Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for New Zealand Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Luo Z-X (2007). Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution. Nature 450:1011–1019.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker RM, Bordenstein SR (2014). Response to Comment on “The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345:1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tamisiea ME, Mitrovica JX, Davis JL (2007). GRACE gravity data constrain ancient ice geometries and continental dynamics over Laurentia. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316:881–883.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dekker J, Rippe K, Dekker M, Kleckner N (2002). Capturing chromosome conformation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295:1306–1311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troffaes MCM, Cooman G de (2014). Lower Previsions: Troffaes/Lower Previsions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Higashino T, Katayama Y, Masuzawa T, Potop-Butucaru M, Yamashita M, editors (2013). Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 15th International Symposium, SSS 2013, Osaka, Japan, November 13-16, 2013. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Yli-Halla M, Schick J, Kratz S, Schnug E (2016). Determination of Plant Available P in Soil. In E Schnug and LJ De Kok, editors Phosphorus in Agriculture: 100 % Zero. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 63–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for New Zealand Dental Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Are Vaccines Making Viruses More Dangerous? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Review of the State of Ohio’s Fiscal Year 1975 State Plan for the Education of Handicapped Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teeter CM (2010). Characterizing the Spatial Density Functions of Neural Arbors. [Doctoral dissertation]. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2007). In a Hospital Stay, No Time to Rest. New York Times:F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Luo, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Luo, 2007; Brucker and Bordenstein, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brucker and Bordenstein, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dekker et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNew Zealand Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0028-8047

Other styles