How to format your references using the European Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sheen J. Phosphorelay and transcription control in cytokinin signal transduction. Science. 2002;296:1650–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Finkelstein A, Taubman S. Health care policy. Randomize evaluations to improve health care delivery. Science. 2015;347:720–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gehring M, Bubb KL, Henikoff S. Extensive demethylation of repetitive elements during seed development underlies gene imprinting. Science. 2009;324:1447–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nolen BJ, Tomasevic N, Russell A, Pierce DW, Jia Z, McCormick CD, et al. Characterization of two classes of small molecule inhibitors of Arp2/3 complex. Nature. 2009;460:1031–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Barone S, Franco EL. Statistical and Managerial Techniques for Six Sigma Methodology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kitada M, Williams E, Froholdt LL, editors. Maritime Women: Global Leadership. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Scholz V, Heiermann M, Kaulfuss P. Sustainability of Energy Crop Cultivation in Central Europe. In: Lichtfouse E, editor. Sociology, Organic Farming, Climate Change and Soil Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 109–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Research Shows How To Trap Cancer By Turning Your Body Against The Tumour. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Assessment and Collection of Regulatory Fees for Fiscal Year 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jul. Report No.: OGC-99-54.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mickels BJ. A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. The Dazzle of Neon. New York Times. 2013 Nov 12;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0393-2990
ISSN (online)1573-7284
ScopeEpidemiology

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