How to format your references using the European Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gould J. Gene therapy: Genie in a vector. Nature. 2014;515:S160-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wiest O, Helquist P. Chemistry. Striking a balance to control stereochemistry. Science. 2011;333:1831–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ. Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms. Nature. 2001;411:1068–73.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Choudhuri K, Wiseman D, Brown MH, Gould K, van der Merwe PA. T-cell receptor triggering is critically dependent on the dimensions of its peptide-MHC ligand. Nature. 2005;436:578–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Alladin A. Integrative CBT for Anxiety Disorders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Choudhary DK, Varma A, Tuteja N, editors. Plant-Microbe Interaction: An Approach to Sustainable Agriculture. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. González-Burgueño A, Santiago S, Escobar S, Meadows C, Meseguer J. Analysis of the PKCS#11 API Using the Maude-NPA Tool. In: Chen L, Matsuo S, editors. Security Standardisation Research: Second International Conference, SSR 2015, Tokyo, Japan, December 15-16, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 86–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Why Do Men Exist? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/why-do-men-exist/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Special Education: Improved Timeliness and Better Use of Enforcement Actions Could Strengthen Education’s Monitoring System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Sep. Report No.: GAO-04-879.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jang SH. Interpretation of extended techniques in unaccompanied flute works by East-Asian composers: Isang Yun, Toru Takemitsu, and Kazuo Fukushima [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Smith M. Minneapolis Police Chief Is Forced Out. New York Times. 2017 Jul 21;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0393-2990
ISSN (online)1573-7284
ScopeEpidemiology

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