How to format your references using the European Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chandrashekar CM. Two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian for generating quantum walk on one-, two- and three-dimensional lattices. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2829.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hinck S, Schiermeier Q. Will industry play a bigger role in Europe’s aims to promote mobility among postdocs? Nature. 2003;421:296–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xie XS, Yu J, Yang WY. Living cells as test tubes. Science. 2006;312:228–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Iaccarino HF, Singer AC, Martorell AJ, Rudenko A, Gao F, Gillingham TZ, et al. Author Correction: Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia. Nature. 2018;562:E1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fuller S. RapidIO®: The Embedded System Interconnect. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Papasratorn B, Chutimaskul W, Porkaew K, Vanijja V, editors. Advances in Information Technology: Third International Conference, IAIT 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nourbakhsh SA, Jaumotte BA, Hirsch C, Parizi HB. Axial and Radial Thrusts. In: Nourbakhsh SA, Jaumotte BA, Hirsch C, Parizi HB, editors. Turbopumps and Pumping Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Lost Medieval City Discovered On England-Wales Border [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/lost-medieval-city-discovered-on-englandwales-border/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Potential Impact of Exemptions From Transportation Control Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Apr. Report No.: RCED-93-125.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Crane CC. A Qualitative Study on the Preferred Working Environment of Southern California Secondary Teachers with Experience in Both a District Traditional School and a District Charter School [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times. 2014 Sep 12;C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0393-2990
ISSN (online)1573-7284
ScopeEpidemiology

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