How to format your references using the European Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Savage N. Modelling: Predictive yield. Nature. 2013;501:S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Richards-Kortum R, Oden M. Engineering. Devices for low-resource health care. Science. 2013;342:1055–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jaeger TF, Pontillo D, Graff P. Comment on “Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.” Science. 2012;335:1042; author reply 1042.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Leigh DA, Wong JKY, Dehez F, Zerbetto F. Unidirectional rotation in a mechanically interlocked molecular rotor. Nature. 2003;424:174–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lindahl D. Multi-Family Millions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Rao PS, Kumar CG, editors. Characterization of Improved Sweet Sorghum Cultivars. New Delhi: Springer India; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Young RA, Marshall SK, Valach L, Domene JF, Graham MD, Zaidman-Zait A. Studying Transition Processes. In: Marshall SK, Valach L, Domene JF, Graham MD, Zaidman-Zait A, editors. Transition to Adulthood: Action, Projects, and Counseling. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Best Medical Images Of The Year: A Mesmerising Nano-World Where Science Becomes Art [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Record Linkage and Privacy: Issues in Creating New Federal Research and Statistical Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Apr. Report No.: GAO-01-126SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Romanek JL. The relative influence of sensation seeking and normal narcissism on academic cheating in emerging adults [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; New Home for Private Art. New York Times. 2005 Jun 13;E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0393-2990
ISSN (online)1573-7284

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