How to format your references using the European Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McNally EM. Genetics: broken giant linked to heart failure. Nature. 2012;483:281–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rathmell JC, Newgard CB. Biochemistry. A glucose-to-gene link. Science. 2009;324:1021–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Peng Y, Maiolino R, Cochrane R. Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies. Nature. 2015;521:192–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Venteicher AS, Abreu EB, Meng Z, McCann KE, Terns RM, Veenstra TD, et al. A human telomerase holoenzyme protein required for Cajal body localization and telomere synthesis. Science. 2009;323:644–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Purkis S, Klemas V. Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Hattingen E, Pilatus U, editors. Brain Tumor Imaging. 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rehm G, Uszkoreit H. Om META-NET. In: Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The Danish Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 32–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. There’s No Such Thing As An ‘Addictive Personality’ – Here’s Why [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/theres-no-such-thing-as-an-addictive-personality-heres-why/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Railroad Regulation: Changes in Freight Railroad Rates from 1997 through 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jun. Report No.: GAO-02-524.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Stahlhut CW. Aerodynamic design optimization of proprotors for convertible-rotor concepts [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Karr M. JAN. 15, 2006: Thanks for The Memoirs. New York Times. 2010 Sep 26;F15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0393-2990
ISSN (online)1573-7284
ScopeEpidemiology

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