How to format your references using the European Journal of Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Strogatz SH. Exploring complex networks. Nature. 2001;410:268–76.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang TT, Palese P. Biochemistry. Catching a moving target. Science. 2011;333:834–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Catling DC, Zahnle KJ, McKay C. Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth. Science. 2001;293:839–43.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ortlepp T, Ariando, Mielke O, Verwijs CJM, Foo KFK, Rogalla H, et al. Flip-flopping fractional flux quanta. Science. 2006;312:1495–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pepper G, Oliver MJ. The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Benlamri R, editor. Networked Digital Technologies: 4th International Conference, NDT 2012, Dubai, UAE, April 24-26, 2012. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Golovin AA. Interfacial Phenomena in Materials Science. In: Colinet P, Nepomnyashchy A, editors. Pattern Formation at Interfaces. Vienna: Springer; 2010. p. 219–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Military Algorithm Identifies Those At Risk Of Committing Violent Crimes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Research Fleet Modernization: NOAA Needs to Consider Alternatives to the Acquisition of New Vessels. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Aug. Report No.: RCED-94-170.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Allen HT. The Songs of Lori Laitman: An Analysis of Sunflowers and Early Snow [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J, Barnes B. Hulu’s Chief Since 2013 Quits to Lead Sony TV Unit. New York Times. 2017 Oct 24;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0393-2990
ISSN (online)1573-7284

Other styles