How to format your references using the European Journal of Engineering Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Engineering Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmollinger, Jan. 2002. “Gaining a Lot from Translation.” Nature 418 (6894): 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robert, K. A., and M. B. Thompson. 2001. “Sex Determination. Viviparous Lizard Selects Sex of Embryos.” Nature 412 (6848): 698–699.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helmus, Matthew R., D. Luke Mahler, and Jonathan B. Losos. 2014. “Island Biogeography of the Anthropocene.” Nature 513 (7519): 543–546.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Wooseong, Wenpeng Zhu, Gabriel Lambert Hendricks, Daria Van Tyne, Andrew D. Steele, Colleen E. Keohane, Nico Fricke, et al. 2018. “A New Class of Synthetic Retinoid Antibiotics Effective against Bacterial Persisters.” Nature 556 (7699): 103–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhurin, Viacheslav V. 2011. Industrial Ion Sources. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gudehus, Timm. 2012. Comprehensive Logistics. Edited by Herbert Kotzab. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Türkay, Michael, Tadashi Kawai, Moritz Sonnewald, and Neil Cumberlidge. 2016. “A Brief History of Freshwater Crab Research.” In A Global Overview of the Conservation of Freshwater Decapod Crustaceans, edited by Tadashi Kawai and Neil Cumberlidge, 115–126. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Engineering Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Time-Lapse Video of Lunar Eclipse.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Opportunities to Improve Planning for Solar Energy Research and Development. EMD-77-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardin, James. 2010. “A Study of Social Cognitive Theory: The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities and Collective Teacher Efficacy in International School Settings.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2003. “Ah, Spring, When Street Fairs Battle Each Other for Permits.” New York Times, April 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmollinger 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Schmollinger 2002; Robert and Thompson 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robert and Thompson 2001)
  • Three authors: (Helmus, Mahler, and Losos 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Engineering Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Eng. Educ.
ISSN (print)0304-3797
ISSN (online)1469-5898
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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