How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Upping the ante. Nature. 2003 Aug 14;424(6950):857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson R, Pauly D. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature. 2001 Nov 29;414(6863):534–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khush RS, Leulier F, Lemaitre B. Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science. 2002 Apr 12;296(5566):273–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shu D-G, Morris SC, Han J, Zhang Z-F, Liu J-N. Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China. Nature. 2004 Jul 22;430(6998):422–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sab K, Lebée A. Homogenization of Heterogeneous Thin and Thick Plates. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Bessani A, Bouchenak S, editors. Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 15th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2015, Held as Part of the 10th International Federated Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, DisCoTec 2015, Grenoble, France, June 2-4, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XII, 221 p. 88 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9038).
A chapter in an edited book
Levitan MA, Lavrushin YA. Geologic-Paleoecological Events of the Late Pleistocene in the Northern-Siberian Lowland and Taimyr Peninsula. In: Lavrushin YA, editor. Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 kyr. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 37–41. (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Luntz S. Researchers Discover Genetic Link To Autism [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Preliminary Information on Progress of the DTV Transition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Oct. Report No.: GAO-08-191T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cubarrubia AP. Exploring the influence of external standards of institutional effectiveness on program assessment in student affairs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Severino and Sanchez Help Yankees Finish Emphatic Sweep of Mets. New York Times. 2017 Aug 18;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Invest.
ISSN (print)0014-2972
ISSN (online)1365-2362
Clinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

Other styles