How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffmann JA. The immune response of Drosophila. Nature. 2003 Nov 6;426(6962):33–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koelle K, Rasmussen DA. Influenza: Prediction is worth a shot. Nature. 2014 Mar 6;507(7490):47–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meindl JD, Chen Q, Davis JA. Limits on silicon nanoelectronics for terascale integration. Science. 2001 Sep 14;293(5537):2044–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang J, Li J, Du Z, Gong Q, Teng J, Hong M. Laser hybrid micro/nano-structuring of Si surfaces in air and its applications for SERS detection. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 17;4:6657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann W. The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Marghoob AA, editor. Nevogenesis: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Nevus Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. VIII, 160 p. 60 illus., 59 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Aydogan-Duda N. Business Environment, Innovation Culture, and Technology Clusters in Developing Countries. In: Aydogan-Duda N, editor. Making It to the Forefront: Nanotechnology—A Developing Country Perspective. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 41–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Failed Star Found In Our Solar Neighborhood By Citizen Scientists [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Aviation Engineering and Maintenance Professionals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Feb. Report No.: GAO-14-237.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillon M. Active aging program for older adults with early stage dementia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Seizing the Day, Hankie in Hand. New York Times. 2016 Nov 18;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Invest.
ISSN (print)0014-2972
ISSN (online)1365-2362
Clinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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