How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boebinger GS. Physics. An abnormal normal state. Science. 2009 Jan 30;323(5914):590–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruick RK, McKnight SL. Transcription. Oxygen sensing gets a second wind. Science. 2002 Feb 1;295(5556):807–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rojas JP, Torres Sevilla GA, Hussain MM. Can we build a truly high performance computer which is flexible and transparent? Sci Rep. 2013;3:2609.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kaspi Y, Galanti E, Hubbard WB, Stevenson DJ, Bolton SJ, Iess L, et al. Jupiter’s atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep. Nature. 2018 Mar 7;555(7695):223–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemaire M. Mechanics and Uncertainty. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Lai PC, Mak ASH, editors. GIS for Health and the Environment: Development in the Asia-Pacific Region With 110 Figures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. IX, 310 p. (Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography).
A chapter in an edited book
Zalba PE, Morosi ME, Conconi MS. Olavarría County. In: Morosi ME, Conconi MS, editors. Gondwana Industrial Clays: Tandilia System, Argentina-Geology and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 107–31. (Springer Earth System Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Pterosaurs Should Have Been Too Big To Fly – So How Did They Manage It? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jun. Report No.: GAO-03-849T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon Y. Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rueck K. “ LITTLE TIME FOR EXTRAS”; What’s a Stewardess. New York Times. 1972 Jun 11;travel and resorts-summer vacations-part 1XX4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Invest.
ISSN (print)0014-2972
ISSN (online)1365-2362
Clinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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