How to format your references using the Fire Safety Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fire Safety Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Knight, Meet the Herod bug, Nature. 412 (2001) 12–14.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Goldenfeld, C. Woese, Biology’s next revolution, Nature. 445 (2007) 369.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Hasty, D. McMillen, J.J. Collins, Engineered gene circuits, Nature. 420 (2002) 224–230.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Zhao, Z. Dai, Y. Liang, M. Yin, K. Ma, M. He, H. Ouyang, C.-B. Teng, Sequence-specific inhibition of microRNA via CRISPR/CRISPRi system, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3943.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Wang, K.C. Tan, Modern Industrial Automation Software Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
S. Ulli-Beer, ed., Dynamic Governance of Energy Technology Change: Socio-technical transitions towards sustainability, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Ofak, Application of the Aarhus Convention in Southeast Europe, in: S. Rodin, T. Perišin (Eds.), Judicial Application of International Law in Southeast Europe, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 43–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fire Safety Journal.

Blog post
K. Evans, Whale That Had To Be Euthanized Found With 30 Plastic Bags In Its Stomach, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Analysis of Data for Exports Regulated by the Department of Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Packard, Analyzing the intersection of leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and coping responses in women -owned small businesses, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Baker, Flourishing in Puget Sound With a Counterculture Past, New York Times. (2006) F11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFire Safety Journal
AbbreviationFire Saf. J.
ISSN (print)0379-7112
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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