How to format your references using the European Journal of Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Smaglik P. Forcing the market. Nature 2003;426:735.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Minamino T, Namba K. Distinct roles of the FliI ATPase and proton motive force in bacterial flagellar protein export. Nature 2008;451:485–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Wessling M, Morcillo LG, Abdu S. Nanometer-thick lateral polyelectrolyte micropatterns induce macrosopic electro-osmotic chaotic fluid instabilities. Sci Rep 2014;4:4294.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lee T-F, Liou M-H, Huang Y-J, Chao P-J, Ting H-M, Lee H-Y, et al. LASSO NTCP predictors for the incidence of xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Sci Rep 2014;4:6217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Federer WT, King F. Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
[1]
Alho JM. Statistical Demography and Forecasting. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Nagy G. Interactive, Mobile, Distributed Pattern Recognition. In: Roli F, Vitulano S, editors. Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2005: 13th International Conference, Cagliari, Italy, September 6-8, 2005. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Cancer.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Scientists Overwhelmingly Reject Chemtrail Conspiracy Theories. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/scientists-overwhelmingly-reject-chemtrail-conspiracy-theories/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Management and Oversight of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Hayen CJ. Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Finding the Way Back to Our Animal Soul. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Protess B, Silver-Greenberg J, Drucker J. Regulators Review German Bank At the Center of Trump’s Finances. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Cancer
AbbreviationEur. J. Cancer
ISSN (print)0959-8049
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

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