How to format your references using the European Journal of Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murzin AG. Biochemistry. DNA building block reinvented. Science 2002;297:61–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephens BB, Keeling RF. The influence of Antarctic sea ice on glacial-interglacial CO2 variations. Nature 2000;404:171–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grzybowski BA, Stone HA, Whitesides GM. Dynamic self-assembly of magnetized, millimetre-sized objects rotating at a liquid-air interface. Nature 2000;405:1033–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
D’Ostilio K, Cremers J, Delvaux V, Sadzot B, Garraux G. Impaired automatic and unconscious motor processes in Parkinson’s disease. Sci Rep 2013;3:2095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biech E. 101 More Ways to Make Training Active. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Hurst CJ, editor. The Rasputin Effect: When Commensals and Symbionts Become Parasitic. vol. 3. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Haberlandt K. ERP-Planning Garbage: Realizing and Preventing. In: Piazolo F, Felderer M, editors. Innovation and Future of Enterprise Information Systems: ERP Future 2012 Conference, Salzburg, Austria, November 2012, Revised Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 31–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Cancer.

Blog post
Andrew E. Spider Versus Snake. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Advanced Imaging Technology: TSA Needs Additional Information before Procuring Next-Generation Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angervil G. Administrative Discretion in Public Policy Implementation: The Case of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Conversation Between Works and Over Decades. New York Times 2014:CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Cancer
AbbreviationEur. J. Cancer
ISSN (print)0959-8049
ScopeCancer Research

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