How to format your references using the European Journal of Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Lok C. Plans to reduce acceptable arsenic limit put on hold. Nature 2001;410:503.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gurdon JB, Melton DA. Nuclear reprogramming in cells. Science 2008;322:1811–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Kim AM, Tingen CM, Woodruff TK. Sex bias in trials and treatment must end. Nature 2010;465:688–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wei H, Xie K, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Qin Y, et al. In situ growth of Ni(x)Cu(1-x) alloy nanocatalysts on redox-reversible rutile (Nb,Ti)O₄ towards high-temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis. Sci Rep 2014;4:5156.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Deutscher Beton- und Bautechnik-Ver. Beispiele zur Bemessung nach Eurocode 2. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Seifert RW. Nurturing Science-based Ventures: An International Case Perspective. London: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Hale MR. Apostles of Freedom: Pro-French American Democrats and Thomas Paine as Religious Crusaders. In: Cleary S, Stabell IL, editors. New Directions in Thomas Paine Studies, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016, p. 69–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Cancer.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Climate Models Too Complicated? Here’s One That Everyone Can Use. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/climate-models-too-complicated-here-s-one-everyone-can-use/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Cost Estimates Related to TSA Funding of Checked Baggage Screening Systems at Los Angeles and Ontario Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Greene J. Recognizing the “Muchness” in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Bennhold K, Erlanger S, Yeginsu C. Britain on Edge As Terror Alert Hits Top Level. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Cancer
AbbreviationEur. J. Cancer
ISSN (print)0959-8049
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

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