How to format your references using the The Astrophysical Journal Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Astrophysical Journal Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, X. S. 2013, Science, 342, 1457
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs, J. D., & Reid, W. V. 2006, Science, 312, 1002
A journal article with 3 authors
Houlié, N., Dreger, D., & Kim, A. 2014, Sci Rep, 4, 3646
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Moon, S. H., Park, S. J., Hwang, Y. J., et al. 2014, Sci Rep, 4, 4408

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolson, R. F., & Clarke, W. R. 2002, Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Biomedical Data: Woolson/Statistical (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Huopalahti, R., López-Fandiño, R., Anton, M., & Schade, R. 2007, Bioactive Egg Compounds (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Tiebosch, M. H., Karimian, G., & Moshage, H. 2015, in Studies on Hepatic Disorders, ed. E. Albano, & M. Parola (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017, IFLScience (IFLScience),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006, Commercial Space Launches: FAA Needs Continued Planning and Monitoring to Oversee the Safety of the Emerging Space Tourism Industry (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, A. N. 2017, Deadly force: Perceptions of police and exploration of strategies used by African American mothers to protect their sons (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010, New York Times, B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sachs & Reid 2006; Xie 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sachs & Reid 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Moon et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Astrophysical Journal Letters
AbbreviationAstrophys. J. Lett.
ISSN (print)2041-8205
ISSN (online)2041-8213
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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