How to format your references using the 4OR citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 4OR. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsay Y-F (2014) Plant science: How to switch affinity. Nature 507:44–45
A journal article with 2 authors
Walker MJ, Beatson SA (2012) Epidemiology. Outsmarting outbreaks. Science 338:1161–1162
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishida N, Katamine S, Manuelidis L (2005) Reciprocal interference between specific CJD and scrapie agents in neural cell cultures. Science 310:493–496
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gaudier M, Schuwirth BS, Westcott SL, Wigley DB (2007) Structural basis of DNA replication origin recognition by an ORC protein. Science 317:1213–1216

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindl T, Steubing R (2013) Atlas of Living Cell Cultures. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Ali Babar M, Vierimaa M, Oivo M (eds) (2010) Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Legris J (2014) Paul Hertz’s Systems of Propositions As a Proof-Theoretical Conception of Logic. In: Pereira LC, Haeusler EH, de Paiva V (eds) Advances in Natural Deduction: A Celebration of Dag Prawitz’s Work. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 93–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 4OR.

Blog post
Carpineti C (2017) Hundreds of Nuclear Test Clips Have Been Declassified, And The Footage Is Both Awe-Inspiring And Terrifying. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Information Technology Utilization by the Federal Government. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White BD (2015) Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support at the High School Level. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brady LS (2015) A Cobbler Is No Longer Barefoot. New York Times ST13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsay 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Walker and Beatson 2012; Tsay 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walker and Beatson 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Gaudier et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal title4OR
Abbreviation4OR
ISSN (print)1619-4500
ISSN (online)1614-2411
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles