How to format your references using the 4OR citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 4OR. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colliex C (2012) Materials science. Watching solution growth of nanoparticles in graphene cells. Science 336:44–45
A journal article with 2 authors
Philip N, Waters AP (2013) Microbiology. Unveiling the malaria parasite’s cloak of invisibility? Science 340:936–937
A journal article with 3 authors
Finlay JC, Small GE, Sterner RW (2013) Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes. Science 342:247–250
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Erlandson KJ, Miller SBM, Nam Y, et al (2008) A role for the two-helix finger of the SecA ATPase in protein translocation. Nature 455:984–987

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett D, Moody S, Kindersley K (2010) Dyslexia in the Workplace. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pifat-Mrzljak G (ed) (2007) Supramolecular Structure and Function 9. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Prauzek M, Hlavica J, Michalikova M (2015) Automatic Fuzzy Classification System for Metabolic Types Detection. In: Abraham A, Jiang XH, Snášel V, Pan J-S (eds) Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications: Proceedings of the Second Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications, ECC 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 49–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 4OR.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Why You Should Stop Using Antibacterial Soap. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Information Technology: OMB’s Dashboard Has Increased Transparency and Oversight, but Improvements Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mizokami SK (2015) Fall risk factors among cane and walker users and non-users. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard A (2016) Wary of Russian Guarantees, Residents Are Staying Put in Aleppo. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colliex 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Colliex 2012; Philip and Waters 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Philip and Waters 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Erlandson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal title4OR
ISSN (print)1619-4500
ISSN (online)1614-2411
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles