How to format your references using the 4OR citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 4OR. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker S (2015) Infectious disease. A return to the pre-antimicrobial era? Science 347:1064–1066
A journal article with 2 authors
Jarvis P, Linder S (2000) Constraints to growth of boreal forests. Nature 405:904–905
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeong H, Chang AM, Melloch MR (2001) The Kondo effect in an artificial quantum dot molecule. Science 293:2221–2223
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu Q, Rand TA, Kalidas S, et al (2003) R2D2, a bridge between the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway. Science 301:1921–1925

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide P (2014) Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Simón Mata A (2016) Fundamentals of Machine Theory and Mechanisms. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Calzolai F, De Nicola R, Loreti M, Tiezzi F (2008) TAPAs: A Tool for the Analysis of Process Algebras. In: Jensen K, Aalst WMP van der, Billington J (eds) Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 54–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 4OR.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Tiny Vibrating Hairs Help Bees Sense Electrical Signals Sent From Flowers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Intercity Passenger Rail: Assessing the Benefits of Increased Federal Funding for Amtrak and High-Speed Passenger Rail Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milillo MS (2009) Analysis of emotional intelligence among management leaders and non-management leaders in software development. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Martin J (2017) Trump Welcomes West Virginia Governor to G.O.P. New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jarvis and Linder 2000; Baker 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jarvis and Linder 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal title4OR
ISSN (print)1619-4500
ISSN (online)1614-2411
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles