How to format your references using the 4OR citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 4OR. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cerutti A (2010) Immunology. IgA changes the rules of memory. Science 328:1646–1647
A journal article with 2 authors
Hong S, Asai T (2014) Effect of panel shape of soccer ball on its flight characteristics. Sci Rep 4:5068
A journal article with 3 authors
Corcoran AJ, Barber JR, Conner WE (2009) Tiger moth jams bat sonar. Science 325:325–327
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Campbell AM, Eckdahl TT, Fowlks E, et al (2006) Collaborative programs. Genome Consortium for Active Teaching (GCAT). Science 311:1103–1104

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown MA, Kaplan L (2012) The Advanced Practice Registered Nurse as a Prescriber. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Göransson B, Brundenius C (eds) (2012) L’université en transition: L’évolution de son rôle et des défis à relever. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Anastassiou GA, Argyros IK (2016) Newton-Like Procedures and Their Applications in Multivariate Fractional Calculus. In: Argyros IK (ed) Intelligent Numerical Methods II: Applications to Multivariate Fractional Calculus. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 51–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 4OR.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) No Time To Exercise? Then This Training Programme Might Be For You. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Developing a Domestic Common Carrier Telecommunications Policy: What Are the Issues? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keith A (2017) Engagement and Temporary Teams: Considerations for Value Engineering Study Teams and Facilitators. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2016) Why a Merger of Media Firms That Should Be a Sure Bet Isn’t. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cerutti 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cerutti 2010; Hong and Asai 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hong and Asai 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Campbell et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal title4OR
ISSN (print)1619-4500
ISSN (online)1614-2411
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles