How to format your references using the European Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowler PJ (2002) Portraits of science. Climb Chimborazo and see the world. Science 298:63–64
A journal article with 2 authors
Elderfield H, Ganssen G (2000) Past temperature and delta18O of surface ocean waters inferred from foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios. Nature 405:442–445
A journal article with 3 authors
Thornton JW, Need E, Crews D (2003) Resurrecting the ancestral steroid receptor: ancient origin of estrogen signaling. Science 301:1714–1717
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chan LN, Chen Z, Braas D, et al (2018) Author Correction: Metabolic gatekeeper function of B-lymphoid transcription factors. Nature 558:E5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Albright RD (2013) Death of the Chesapeake. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Valk PE, Delbeke D, Bailey DL, et al (eds) (2006) Positron Emission Tomography: Clinical Practice. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Thurner S (2011) A Simple General Model of Evolutionary Dynamics. In: Meyer-Ortmanns H, Thurner S (eds) Principles of Evolution: From the Planck Epoch to Complex Multicellular Life. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 119–144

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) First Baby Born From Womb Transplant. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Port Infrastructure: Financing of Navigation Projects at Small and Medium-Sized Ports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander M (2009) Reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder A (2014) Pennsylvania Officials Identify Suspect in Ambush at Barracks. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowler 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Elderfield and Ganssen 2000; Bowler 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elderfield and Ganssen 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Chan et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1439-6319
ISSN (online)1439-6327
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles