How to format your references using the European Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blatt R (2001) Delicate information. Nature 412:773
A journal article with 2 authors
Jupp T, Schultz A (2000) A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures. Nature 403:880–883
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamada Y, Kawabe T, Miyazaki M (2013) Pattern randomness aftereffect. Sci Rep 3:2906
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Maccarone TJ, Kundu A, Zepf SE, Rhode KL (2007) A black hole in a globular cluster. Nature 445:183–185

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett D, Moody S, Kindersley K (2010) Dyslexia in the Workplace. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pawlik TM, Maithel SK, Merchant NB (eds) (2015) Gastrointestinal Surgery: Management of Complex Perioperative Complications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Barney HT, Aurum A, Low GC, Wang K (2013) Investigating Post-outsourcing Decisions: Using the Intellectual Capital View. In: Linger H, Fisher J, Barnden A, et al. (eds) Building Sustainable Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Systems Development. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 63–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Fossil Fuel Emissions Could Mess With Radiocarbon Dating. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Propriety of the City Edges Grant Awarded to the Suburban Action Institute. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bakirci A (2010) Proteomic analysis of hepatocyte proteins in response to in vivo iron overload. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2017) Silvery, Then Raucous: A Leap Across Time. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blatt 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jupp and Schultz 2000; Blatt 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jupp and Schultz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Maccarone et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1439-6319
ISSN (online)1439-6327
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles