How to format your references using the European Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Applied Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Daszak P (2010) Epidemiology. Bats, in black and white. Science 329:634–635
A journal article with 2 authors
Clavien P-A, Deiss J (2015) Leadership: ten tips for choosing an academic chair. Nature 519:286–287
A journal article with 3 authors
Pack CC, Berezovskii VK, Born RT (2001) Dynamic properties of neurons in cortical area MT in alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys. Nature 414:905–908
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nam K-H, Jamilpour N, Mfoumou E, et al (2014) Probing mechanoregulation of neuronal differentiation by plasma lithography patterned elastomeric substrates. Sci Rep 4:6965

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoker JJ (1988) Differential Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ganzha M, Jain LC (eds) (2013) Multiagent Systems and Applications: Volume 1:Practice and Experience. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Cruz A, Correia A, Paredes H, et al (2012) Towards an Overarching Classification Model of CSCW and Groupware: A Socio-technical Perspective. In: Herskovic V, Hoppe HU, Jansen M, Ziegler J (eds) Collaboration and Technology: 18th International Conference, CRIWG 2012 Raesfeld, Germany, September 16-19, 2012 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Solar Power Installations Grew Almost 50 Percent in 2016. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Consistent Criteria Are Needed To Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan M (2010) Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brennan TJ (2017) Why Pot, Not Pills, Works for My T.B.I. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Daszak 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Daszak 2010; Clavien and Deiss 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clavien and Deiss 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nam et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1439-6319
ISSN (online)1439-6327
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles