How to format your references using the European Journal of Applied Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Applied Physiology (Eur J Appl Physiol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prusiner SB (2002) Historical essay. Discovering the cause of AIDS. Science 298:1726
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennis C, Byrne N (2004) Harvesting biotechnology. Nature 429:1
A journal article with 3 authors
Day JMD, Pearson DG, Taylor LA (2007) Highly siderophile element constraints on accretion and differentiation of the Earth-Moon system. Science 315:217–219
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Segall P, Desmarais EK, Shelly D, et al (2006) Earthquakes triggered by silent slip events on Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii. Nature 442:71–74

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aksamija A (2016) Integrating Innovation in Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Wille R (2010) Towards a Design Flow for Reversible Logic. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Fortun K, Morgan A (2016) Thinking Across Disaster. In: Shigemura J, Chhem RK (eds) Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident: The Case of Fukushima. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 55–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Applied Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Wednesday’s “Blood Moon” Total Eclipse As Seen From Mercury. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Changing Patterns of Federal Aid to State and Local Governments, 1969-75. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forlano L (2008) When code meets place: Collaboration and innovation at WiFi hotspots. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Stevenson A (2016) S.E.C. Chief Among First to Plan Exit. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prusiner 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Prusiner 2002, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dennis and Byrne 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Segall et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
AbbreviationEur. J. Appl. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1439-6319
ISSN (online)1439-6327
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physiology (medical)

Other styles