How to format your references using the Transboundary and Emerging Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colliex, C., 2015: Chemistry. Tracking the merry dance of nanoparticles. Science 349, 232–233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, P.M., and D.D. Jackson, 2011: Retrospective. Leon Knopoff (1925-2011). Science 331, 1400.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, J., Q. Liu, and X. Wang, 2014: Competitive dynamics on complex networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 5858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zheng, X., O. Pontes, J. Zhu, D. Miki, F. Zhang, W.-X. Li, K. Iida, A. Kapoor, C.S. Pikaard, and J.-K. Zhu, 2008: ROS3 is an RNA-binding protein required for DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis. Nature 455, 1259–1262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
May, V., and O. Kühn, 2007: Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Carswell, J.D., A.S. Fotheringham, and G. McArdle (Eds.), 2009: Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems: 9th International Symposium, W2GIS 2009, Maynooth, Ireland, December 7-8, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5886. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Masciullo, V., C. Di Cesare, and I. Paris, 2016: Advances in Ovarian Cancer and Ongoing Clinical Trials, pp. 65–77. In: Giordano, Antonio, and Marcella Macaluso (eds), Gynecological Cancers: Genetic and Epigenetic Targets and Drug Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017 (8. June): IFLScience, How An Arctic Lake Became The Arctic Ocean [Online] Available at (accessed October 30, 2018). IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008: Transportation Safety: Medical Certification and Background Check Requirements for Pilots, Vessel Masters, and Commercial Drivers Vary (No. GAO-08-421R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roettger, M.E., 2008: Three essays on social inequality and the U.S. criminal justice system (Doctoral dissertation). PhD thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman, J., 2015 (3. September): Tears and Anger in Queens After Mother Loses Another Son to Violence. p. A26, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colliex, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Davis and Jackson, 2011; Colliex, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and Jackson, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
AbbreviationTransbound. Emerg. Dis.
ISSN (print)1865-1674
ISSN (online)1865-1682
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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