How to format your references using the Transboundary and Emerging Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huang, K.G., 2010: Intellectual property. China’s innovation landscape. Science 329, 632–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lynch, M., and J.S. Conery, 2003: The origins of genome complexity. Science 302, 1401–1404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorpe, S.K.S., R.L. Holder, and R.H. Crompton, 2007: Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches. Science 316, 1328–1331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smale, D.A., K.M. Brown, D.K.A. Barnes, K.P.P. Fraser, and A. Clarke, 2008: Ice scour disturbance in Antarctic waters. Science 321, 371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dixon, C.S., 2010: Protestants. Oxford, UK: wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Al-Khayri, J.M., S.M. Jain, and D.V. Johnson (Eds.), 2015: Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Druffel, E.R.M., S.R. Beaupré, and L.A. Ziolkowski, 2016: Radiocarbon in the Oceans, pp. 139–166. In: Schuur, Edward A. G., Ellen Druffel, and Susan E. Trumbore (eds), Radiocarbon and Climate Change: Mechanisms, Applications and Laboratory Techniques. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017 (27. May): IFLScience, Stem Cells Show Promise – But They Also Have A Darker Side [Online] Available at (accessed October 30, 2018). IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005: Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses (No. GAO-05-465T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
David, S.Z., 2016: A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters (Doctoral dissertation). PhD thesis, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017 (21. May): Agassi to Coach Djokovic at French Open. p. D4, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huang, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lynch and Conery, 2003; Huang, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lynch and Conery, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Smale et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
AbbreviationTransbound. Emerg. Dis.
ISSN (print)1865-1674
ISSN (online)1865-1682
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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