How to format your references using the Transboundary and Emerging Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lenski, R.E., 2001: Genetics and evolution. Come fly, and leave the baggage behind. Science 294, 533–534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, S.T., and R.J. Hobbs, 2009: Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science 325, 567–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lazzerini, G.M., L.M. Strambini, and G. Barillaro, 2013: Addressing reliability and degradation of chemitransistor sensors by electrical tuning of the sensitivity. Sci. Rep. 3, 1161.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brake, J.M., M.K. Daschner, Y.-Y. Luk, and N.L. Abbott, 2003: Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals. Science 302, 2094–2097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, R.A., 2010: Virgil. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Seitz, P., and A.J.P. Theuwissen (Eds.), 2011: Single-Photon Imaging. Vol. 160. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ihara, M., S. Seko, A. Miyata, R. Aoki, T. Ishida, M. Watanabe, R. Hashimoto, and H. Watanabe, 2016: Towards More Practical Information Sharing in Disaster Situations, pp. 32–39. In: Yamamoto, Sakae (ed), Human Interface and the Management of Information: Applications and Services: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016 Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015 (27. October): IFLScience, Trials A Step Forward For Medicinal Cannabis But What Comes Next? [Online] Available at (accessed October 30, 2018). IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1966: Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958 (No. B-141387). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wells, R.E., 2008: Managers’ affective expressions as determinants of employee responses to change: Valence, inappropriateness and authenticity (Doctoral dissertation). PhD thesis, Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2016 (16. March): The New Bork Battle. p. A25, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lenski, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lenski, 2001; Jackson and Hobbs, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jackson and Hobbs, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Brake et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
AbbreviationTransbound. Emerg. Dis.
ISSN (print)1865-1674
ISSN (online)1865-1682
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

Other styles