How to format your references using the Transboundary and Emerging Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fürstner, A., 2013: Teaching metathesis “simple” stereochemistry. Science 341, 1229713.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barber, M.F., and N.C. Elde, 2014: Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science 346, 1362–1366.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carlson, R.W., M. Boyet, and M. Horan, 2007: Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early Earth differentiation. Science 316, 1175–1178.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Real, R., M. Peter, A. Trabalza, S. Khan, M.A. Smith, J. Dopp, S.J. Barnes, A. Momoh, A. Strano, E. Volpi, G. Knott, F.J. Livesey, and V. De Paola, 2018: In vivo modeling of human neuron dynamics and Down syndrome. Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl, B., M. Thewes, and U. Maidl, 2014: Handbook of Tunnel Engineering II. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Garg, A. (Ed.), 2015: Dyslipidemias: Pathophysiology, Evaluation and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Youssef, M.K., D. Harris, and M.J. Rotheram-Borus, 2016: The Impact of Pediatric HIV on Families, pp. 95–132. In: Chenneville, Tiffany (ed), A Clinical Guide to Pediatric HIV: Bridging the Gaps Between Research and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014 (30. October): IFLScience, Why Did Dinosaurs Evolve Feathers Long Before Flight? [Online] Available at (accessed October 30, 2018). IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974: Need To Revise Office of Saline Water’s Restrictive Patent Policy (No. 093122). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton, J.C., 2013: Elementary ESL and General Education Co-Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Co-Teaching Roles: A Mixed Methods Study (Doctoral dissertation). PhD thesis, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2014 (23. November): An Eye for the 20th Century. p. WE10, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fürstner, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fürstner, 2013; Barber and Elde, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barber and Elde, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Real et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
AbbreviationTransbound. Emerg. Dis.
ISSN (print)1865-1674
ISSN (online)1865-1682
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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