How to format your references using the Clinical Laboratory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Laboratory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway E. Evolutionary biology: the lost appetites. Nature. 2012 Jun 20;486(7403):S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimes RW, Nuttall WJ. Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance. Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):799–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki H, Imura JI, Aihara K. Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan 24;3:1127.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saparov B, Cantoni C, Pan M, Hogan TC, Ratcliff W 2nd, Wilson SD, et al. Complex structures of different CaFe2As2 samples. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 18;4:4120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkat S, Baird S. Liquidity Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Morlini I, Minerva T, Vichi M, editors. Advances in Statistical Models for Data Analysis. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. VIII, 268 p. 49 illus., 13 illus. in color. (Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization).
A chapter in an edited book
Tepper SJ, Tepper DE. Diagnosis of Primary Chronic Daily Headaches. In: Tepper SJ, Tepper DE, editors. The Cleveland Clinic Manual of Headache Therapy: Second Edition. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Laboratory.

Blog post
Fang J. New Family Of Extinct Marsupials Discovered In Australia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill in Oregon. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jul. Report No.: 092275.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Millar CL. Re-specting graffiti: Transgression at play in art, language, and ritual [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J. When the Mill Pulled the Rub Out From Under Yonkers. New York Times. 1979 Jul 29;Westchester WeeklyWC15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Laboratory
AbbreviationClin. Lab.
ISSN (print)1433-6510
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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