How to format your references using the Clinical Laboratory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Laboratory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tylianakis JM. Ecology. The global plight of pollinators. Science. 2013 Mar 29;339(6127):1532–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orsini A, Falconi C. Real-time monitoring of the solution growth of ZnO nanorods arrays by quartz microbalances and in-situ temperature sensors. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 5;4:6285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang Z, White PS, Brookhart M. Ligand exchanges and selective catalytic hydrogenation in molecular single crystals. Nature. 2010 Jun 3;465(7298):598–601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang J-X, Wang Y-J, Zhang W, Wang N-X, Bai C-B, Xing Y-L, et al. Selective nickel- and manganese-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of some α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids with cyclic ethers. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 12;4:7446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eylert B. The Mobile Multimedia Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Suurtamm C. Assessment in Mathematics Education: Large-Scale Assessment and Classroom Assessment. Thompson DR, Kim RY, Moreno LD, Sayac N, Schukajlow S, Silver E, et al., editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. IX, 38 p. 1 illus. (ICME-13 Topical Surveys).
A chapter in an edited book
Hwang Y-S, Kearney P. Study One: Mindfulness Intervention for Mothers. In: Kearney P, editor. A Mindfulness Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: New Directions in Research and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 59–91. (Mindfulness in Behavioral Health).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Laboratory.

Blog post
Andrew E. Long Lost Beagle Probe Finally Found On Mars [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Third Party Funding Agreements: No Longer Appropriate for Serving the Handicapped Through the Vocational Rehabilitation Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Apr. Report No.: HRD-78-7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chryssis AN. Design and fabrication of high-performance interband cascade tunable external cavity lasers [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kounios J. Eureka? Yes, Eureka! New York Times. 2017 Jun 10;SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Laboratory
AbbreviationClin. Lab.
ISSN (print)1433-6510
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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