How to format your references using the Clinical Laboratory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Laboratory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCauley DJ. Selling out on nature. Nature. 2006 Sep 7;443(7107):27–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smethurst DP, Williams HC. Power laws. Are hospital waiting lists self-regulating? Nature. 2001 Apr 5;410(6829):652–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jönsson TJ, Johnson LC, Lowther WT. Structure of the sulphiredoxin-peroxiredoxin complex reveals an essential repair embrace. Nature. 2008 Jan 3;451(7174):98–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hall C, Tharakan P, Hallock J, Cleveland C, Jefferson M. Hydrocarbons and the evolution of human culture. Nature. 2003 Nov 20;426(6964):318–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garde F, Aelenei D, Aelenei L, Scognamiglio A, Ayoub J. Solution Sets for Net-Zero Energy Buildings. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
Böcher M. Science Makes the World Go Round: Successful Scientific Knowledge Transfer for the Environment. Krott M, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIX, 207 p. 44 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Escalera S, Baró X, Pujol O, Vitrià J, Radeva P. Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition System. In: Baró X, Pujol O, Vitrià J, Radeva P, editors. Traffic-Sign Recognition Systems. London: Springer; 2011. p. 81–94. (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Laboratory.

Blog post
Hale T. Pornhub Reveal What Porn The World Was Watching In 2016 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: Physical Conditions of the Interstate Highway System Have Improved, but Congestion and Other Pressure Continue. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Sep. Report No.: GAO-02-1128T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckingham T. Every teacher an English teacher? Literacy strategy teaching and research in the content area of science education [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philadelphia CW, April 28-A single goal scored with their goaltender sprawled on his back ended the Islanders’ season tonight., Special to the New York Times In the type of grind-it-out hockey that was the trademark of the Islanders’ dynasty, The Philadelphia Flyers Defeated, 1-, captured the Patrick division title by taking the four-of-seven playoff series four games to one. The Flyers will now advance to the semifinal round of the Stanley Cup Playoffs against the Montreal Canadiens or Quebec Nordiques., et al. FLYERS ELIMINATE ISLANDERS, 1-0, ON SINISALO’S GOAL. New York Times. 1985 Apr 29;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Laboratory
AbbreviationClin. Lab.
ISSN (print)1433-6510
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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