How to format your references using the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lipton SA. Turning down, but not off. Nature 2004;428:473.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coleman P, Schofield AJ. Quantum criticality. Nature 2005;433:226–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long SB, Campbell EB, Mackinnon R. Crystal structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent Shaker family K+ channel. Science 2005;309:897–903.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zicha D, Dobbie IM, Holt MR, Monypenny J, Soong DYH, Gray C, et al. Rapid actin transport during cell protrusion. Science 2003;300:142–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trigeassou J-C. Electrical Machines Diagnosis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Steck A. Brain and Mind: Subjective Experience and Scientific Objectivity. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Greene RE, Kim K-T, Krantz SG. Lie Groups Realized as Automorphism Groups. In: Kim K-T, Krantz SG, editors. The Geometry of Complex Domains, Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2011, p. 135–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Organic ‘Computers’ Made Of DNA Could Process Data Inside Our Bodies. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Sale of Magnetic Data Tapes Previously Used by the Government Presents a Low Security Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verret JE. Property Tax Limitations, School District Revenues, and Equity: Analyses of Pennsylvania’s Act One. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. To Herald a Film, a Comic Strip Mirrors the Ravages of Climate Change. New York Times 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases
AbbreviationEur. Ann. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Dis.
ISSN (print)1879-7296

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