How to format your references using the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman M. Journal club. A palaeontologist ponders how biodiversity is spread across the vertebrate tree of life. Nature 2009;462:255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kamiyama D, Chiba A. Endogenous activation patterns of Cdc42 GTPase within Drosophila embryos. Science 2009;324:1338–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz RF, Spiegelman M, Holtzman B. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature 2006;442:676–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Myhrvold C, Freije CA, Gootenberg JS, Abudayyeh OO, Metsky HC, Durbin AF, et al. Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13. Science 2018;360:444–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte GS. Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Kraas F, Aggarwal S, Coy M, Mertins G, editors. Megacities: Our Global Urban Future. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Shin I, Kim M, Choo H. On Generating Backbone Trees through Robust Multi-hop Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Lee S, Choo H, Ha S, Shin IC, editors. Computer-Human Interaction: 8th Asia-Pacific Conference, APCHI 2008 Seoul, Korea, July 6-9, 2008 Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 30–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases.

Blog post
Luntz S. Reports Of An Earth-like Planet Around Our Nearest Neighbor. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Information on Bridge Conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington LM. Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt S. In City Rich in History, Unusual Plan to Preserve Poet’s Home. New York Times 2016:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases
AbbreviationEur. Ann. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Dis.
ISSN (print)1879-7296

Other styles