How to format your references using the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laloë F. Obituary: Jean Brossel (1918-2003). Nature 2003;422:274.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis G, Silk J. Scientific method: Defend the integrity of physics. Nature 2014;516:321–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wahl ER, Ritson DM, Ammann CM. Comment on “Reconstructing past climate from noisy data.” Science 2006;312:529; author reply 529.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Iwata N, Tsubuki S, Takaki Y, Shirotani K, Lu B, Gerard NP, et al. Metabolic regulation of brain Abeta by neprilysin. Science 2001;292:1550–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
George MD, Donley TG, Preshaw PM. Ultrasonic Periodontal Debridement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Benner Carson V. Care Giving for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Compassionate Guide for Clinicians and Loved Ones. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ortiz C. The Private Military Company: An Entity at the Center of Overlapping Spheres of Commercial Activity and Responsibility. In: Jäger T, Kümmel G, editors. Private Military and Security Companies: Chances, Problems, Pitfalls and Prospects, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2007, p. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Most Distant Galaxy Has Been Discovered. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carriers: Better Information Needed to Assess Effectiveness and Efficiency of Safety Interventions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carman SB. Leadership style and church attendance: An ex post facto study of Churches of Christ in Texas. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Project Turns to Architect It Knows Well. New York Times 2016:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases
AbbreviationEur. Ann. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Dis.
ISSN (print)1879-7296

Other styles