How to format your references using the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V. High-security labs: Life in the danger zone. Nature 2014;505:437–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dubcovsky J, Dvorak J. Genome plasticity a key factor in the success of polyploid wheat under domestication. Science 2007;316:1862–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brook BW, Sodhi NS, Ng PKL. Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore. Nature 2003;424:420–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rajakulendran T, Sahmi M, Lefrançois M, Sicheri F, Therrien M. A dimerization-dependent mechanism drives RAF catalytic activation. Nature 2009;461:542–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singh J. Functional Software Size Measurement Methodology with Effort Estimation and Performance Indication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Wang J, Cellary W, Wang D, Wang H, Chen S-C, Li T, et al., editors. Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. vol. 9419. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicolai N, Crestani A. Is There Still an Indication for Primary RPLND in Clinical Stage I Non-seminoma? In: Krege S, editor. Diagnosis and Management of Testicular Cancer: The European Point of View, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 29–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ancient Britons Had Wheat 2000 Years Before They Had Farms. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Implementing Best Practices and Reform Initiatives Can Help Improve the Management of Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neal L. What’s in Your Toolbox?: Examining Tool Choices at Two Middle and Late Woodland-Period Sites on Florida’s Central Gulf Coast. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sarotte ME. How the Berlin Wall Really Fell. New York Times 2014:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases
AbbreviationEur. Ann. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Dis.
ISSN (print)1879-7296

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