How to format your references using the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pandit MK. The Himalayas must be protected. Nature 2013;501:283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ye C, Tsukruk VV. Materials assembly. Designing two-dimensional materials that spring rapidly into three-dimensional shapes. Science 2015;347:130–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atallah BV, Scanziani M, Carandini M. Atallah et al. reply. Nature 2014;508:E3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Atabaki AH, Moazeni S, Pavanello F, Gevorgyan H, Notaros J, Alloatti L, et al. Publisher Correction: Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip. Nature 2018;560:E4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dehn MJ. Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Xu K. Myelinated Fibers and Saltatory Conduction in the Shrimp: The Fastest Impulse Conduction in the Animal Kingdom. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Mauthe S, Miehe C. Variational Gradient Plasticity: Local-Global Updates, Regularization and Laminate Microstructures in Single Crystals. In: Conti S, Hackl K, editors. Analysis and Computation of Microstructure in Finite Plasticity, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 89–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. 10,000 Years of Bones Reveal How Climate Affected Bunny Booms in the Past. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. High-Containment Laboratories: Actions Needed to Mitigate Risk of Potential Exposure and Release of Dangerous Pathogens. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lupian S. Educating the Latino community on the relationship between obesity and psychosocial well being. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Seeing and Being Seen, Across Millenniums. New York Times 2013:WE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck diseases
AbbreviationEur. Ann. Otorhinolaryngol. Head Neck Dis.
ISSN (print)1879-7296

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