How to format your references using the Superlattices and Microstructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superlattices and Microstructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Gewin, Biosphere owner sues sponsor, Nature. 422 (2003) 461.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.L. Clem, R.L. Huganir, Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor dynamics mediate fear memory erasure, Science. 330 (2010) 1108–1112.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Fumagalli, J.M. O’Meara, J.X. Prochaska, Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang, Science. 334 (2011) 1245–1249.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Riebesell, R.G.J. Bellerby, A. Engel, V.J. Fabry, D.A. Hutchins, T.B.H. Reusch, K.G. Schulz, F.M.M. Morel, Comment on “Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world,” Science. 322 (2008) 1466; author reply 1466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Girling, Operational Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
M. Kurian, P. McCarney, eds., Peri-urban Water and Sanitation Services: Policy, Planning and Method, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Barletti, L. Demeio, G. Frosali, Multiband quantum transport models for semiconductor devices, in: C. Cercignani, E. Gabetta (Eds.), Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory: Applications to Gases, Semiconductors, Photons, and Biological Systems, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 55–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superlattices and Microstructures.

Blog post
B. Taub, Practically Unknown STI Could Have Infected Huge Numbers Of People Without Them Knowing Anything About It, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Bilingual Education: Information on Limited English Proficient Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Zhang, Toward a Molecular Mechanism of Phase Separation in Disordered Elastin-Like Proteins, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr, Driver in Deadly Times Square Crash Is Charged With Murder, New York Times. (2017) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperlattices and Microstructures
AbbreviationSuperlattices Microstruct.
ISSN (print)0749-6036
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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