How to format your references using the Superlattices and Microstructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superlattices and Microstructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L.-M. Duan, Physics. Quantum correlation between distant diamonds, Science. 334 (2011) 1213–1214.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Bringmann, A.A. Hyman, A cytokinesis furrow is positioned by two consecutive signals, Nature. 436 (2005) 731–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.N. Head, H.J. Melosh, B.A. Ivanov, Martian meteorite launch: high-speed ejecta from small craters, Science. 298 (2002) 1752–1756.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.H. Youn, J.-W. Jang, J.Y. Kim, J.S. Jang, S.H. Choi, J.S. Lee, Fabrication of graphene-based electrode in less than a minute through hybrid microwave annealing, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.F. Dods, Understanding Diabetes, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
D. Obdržálek, A. Gottscheber, eds., Research and Education in Robotics - EUROBOT 2010: International Conference, Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland, May 27-30, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Durville, A Finite Element Approach of the Behaviour of Woven Materials at Microscopic Scale, in: J.-F. Ganghoffer, F. Pastrone (Eds.), Mechanics of Microstructured Solids: Cellular Materials, Fibre Reinforced Solids and Soft Tissues, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superlattices and Microstructures.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Key Ingredients For Life Found On Comet 67P, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Interstate Commerce Commission: Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Motor Carrier and Other Functions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.M. Martinez, The influence of formal and informal support on the quality of life of individuals with a severe mental illness, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Steinhauer, Long Critical of Trump’s Ideas, Republicans Now Applaud Them, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperlattices and Microstructures
AbbreviationSuperlattices Microstruct.
ISSN (print)0749-6036
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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