How to format your references using the Music Theory Spectrum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Music Theory Spectrum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich. 2015. “Antibiotics: Homed to the Hideout.” Nature 527: 309–310.
A journal article with 2 authors
Canfield, Donald E., and Lee R. Kump. 2013. “Geochemistry. Carbon Cycle Makeover.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339: 533–534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Julsgaard, B., A. Kozhekin, and E. S. Polzik. 2001. “Experimental Long-Lived Entanglement of Two Macroscopic Objects.” Nature 413: 400–403.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gasparini, Fabio, Federico Caicci, Francesca Rigon, Giovanna Zaniolo, and Lucia Manni. 2014. “Testing an Unusual in Vivo Vessel Network Model: A Method to Study Angiogenesis in the Colonial Tunicate Botryllus Schlosseri.” Scientific Reports 4: 6460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson, Peter. 2014. Probabilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Manolopoulos, Yannis, Joaquim Filipe, Panos Constantopoulos, and José Cordeiro, eds. 2008. Enterprise Information Systems: 8th International Conference, ICEIS 2006, Paphos, Cyprus, May 23-27, 2006 , Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 3. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bückström, Torbjörn, Vita Birzniece, Guillén Fernández, Inga-Maj Johansson, Kristiina Kask, Charlotte Lindblad, Per Lundgren, et al. 2008. “Neuroactive Steroids: Effects on Cognitive Functions.” In Neuroactive Steroids in Brain Function, Behavior and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Strategies for Research and Treatment. Ed. Michael S. Ritsner and Abraham Weizman. 103–121. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Music Theory Spectrum.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Astronomers Have Discovered A New Moon In Our Solar System.” IFLScience. IFLScience Available at <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Fund Accountability: Procedures Used for Selected Benefit/Mandatory Spending Programs Are Adequate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freeman, Megan Joseph. 2012. “Gene-Environment Interaction in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “Big Dreams and Ideas in Chicago.” New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleMusic Theory Spectrum
AbbreviationMusic Theory Spectr.
ISSN (print)0195-6167
ISSN (online)1533-8339

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