How to format your references using the Ethnomusicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnomusicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lengauer, Christoph. 2003. “Cancer. An Unstable Liaison.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300(5618):442–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meselson, Matthew, and David Mark Welch. 2007. “Evolution. Stable Heterozygosity?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318(5848):202–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prospero, Joseph M., Joanna E. Bullard, and Richard Hodgkins. 2012. “High-Latitude Dust over the North Atlantic: Inputs from Icelandic Proglacial Dust Storms.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335(6072):1078–82.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wong, K. L., G. Pawin, K-Y Kwon, X. Lin, T. Jiao, U. Solanki, R. H. J. Fawcett, L. Bartels, S. Stolbov, and T. S. Rahman. 2007. “A Molecule Carrier.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5817):1391–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Free, Michael L. 2015. CBT and Christianity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Atzmueller, Martin, Alvin Chin, Denis Helic, and Andreas Hotho, eds. 2012. Modeling and Mining Ubiquitous Social Media: International Workshops MSM 2011, Boston, MA, USA, October 9, 2011, and MUSE 2011, Athens, Greece, September 5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7472. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Rui, Yihua Yan, and Baolin Tan. 2014. “Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Force-Free Field Reconstruction of Solar Active Region 11158 by Direct Boundary Integral Equation.” In Coronal Magnetometry, edited by Steven Tomczyk, Jie Zhang, and Timothy Bastian, 45–67. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnomusicology.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Barley Helped Early Farmers Settle the Dizzying Heights of the Tibetan Plateau.” IFLScience. IFLScience. November 20.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. “Athletic Department Profiles.” HRD-93-24R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gao, Hui. 2006. “Extracting Key Features for Analysis and Recognition in Computer Vision.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, Anemona. 2014. “Doctor Who Worked on Rivers Steps Down From Post at Medical Clinic.” New York Times, September 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lengauer 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lengauer 2003; Meselson and Mark Welch 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meselson and Mark Welch 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wong et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnomusicology
ISSN (print)0014-1836
ISSN (online)2156-7417
Cultural Studies

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