How to format your references using the Ethnomusicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnomusicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markó, I. E. 2001. “Natural Product Synthesis. The Art of Total Synthesis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5548):1842–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mori, Masao, and Masayuki Umemura. 2006. “The Evolution of Galaxies from Primeval Irregulars to Present-Day Ellipticals.” Nature 440(7084):644–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sadqi, Mourad, David Fushman, and Victor Muñoz. 2006. “Atom-by-Atom Analysis of Global Downhill Protein Folding.” Nature 442(7100):317–21.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gottar, Marie, Vanessa Gobert, Tatiana Michel, Marcia Belvin, Geoffrey Duyk, Jules A. Hoffmann, Dominique Ferrandon, and Julien Royet. 2002. “The Drosophila Immune Response against Gram-Negative Bacteria Is Mediated by a Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein.” Nature 416(6881):640–44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, Fan. 2006. Developing Chemical Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hornsby, Kathleen Stewart, Christophe Claramunt, Michel Denis, and Gérard Ligozat, eds. 2009. Spatial Information Theory: 9th International Conference, COSIT 2009 Aber Wrac’h, France, September 21-25, 2009 Proceedings. Vol. 5756. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tichavska, Miluše, Francisco Cabrera, Beatriz Tovar, and Víctor Araña. 2015. “Use of the Automatic Identification System in Academic Research.” In Computer Aided Systems Theory – EUROCAST 2015: 15th International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 8-13, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Roberto Moreno-Díaz, Franz Pichler, and Alexis Quesada-Arencibia, 33–40. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnomusicology.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. “Snake Bites Its Own Body AFTER Being Decapitated.” IFLScience. IFLScience. July 7.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. “ICBM Modernization: Availability Problems and Flight Test Delays in Peacekeeper Program.” NSIAD-89-105. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PerLee-Lange, Dene L. 2010. “An Introduction to the Juvenile Dependency Court Process and the Child Welfare System: A Curriculum for Parents.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2017. “Sharapova Rising Ladder Toward Major Appearances.” New York Times, May 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markó 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Markó 2001; Mori and Umemura 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mori and Umemura 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gottar et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnomusicology
ISSN (print)0014-1836
ISSN (online)2156-7417
Cultural Studies

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