How to format your references using the Ethnomusicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnomusicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh, C. 2001. “Enabling the Chemistry of Life.” Nature 409(6817):226–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whitesides, George M., and John Deutch. 2011. “Let’s Get Practical.” Nature 469(7328):21–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bourgeois, Christine, Benedita Rocha, and Corinne Tanchot. 2002. “A Role for CD40 Expression on CD8+ T Cells in the Generation of CD8+ T Cell Memory.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297(5589):2060–63.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Walther, Tobias C., Jason H. Brickner, Pablo S. Aguilar, Sebastián Bernales, Carlos Pantoja, and Peter Walter. 2006. “Eisosomes Mark Static Sites of Endocytosis.” Nature 439(7079):998–1003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heide, Paul van der. 2014. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yue, Wuyi, Yataka Takahashi, and Hideaki Takagi, eds. 2009. Advances in Queueing Theory and Network Applications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bronfman, R. 2007. “ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS IN ISRAEL.” In Environmental Security in Harbors and Coastal Areas: Management Using Comparative Risk Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, edited by Igor Linkov, Gregory A. Kiker, and Richard J. Wenning, 81–84. NATO Security through Science Series. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnomusicology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Why Does Chilli Burn, And Why Does Milk Help Soothe The Pain?” IFLScience. IFLScience. August 11.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. “Early Decisions and Delays on the Zilwaukee, Michigan, Bridge Project.” RCED-83-165. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pearson, David. 2014. “A High-Level Fuzzy Logic Guidance System for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Tasked to Perform an Autonomous Launch and Recovery (ALR) of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV).” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2006. “Endless Options in a Wrap.” New York Times, November 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walsh 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Walsh 2001; Whitesides and Deutch 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whitesides and Deutch 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Walther et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnomusicology
ISSN (print)0014-1836
ISSN (online)2156-7417
Cultural Studies

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