How to format your references using the BMC Research Notes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Research Notes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. Economic divide taking toll on European science. Nature. 2015;517:123.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rowland JM, Emlen DJ. Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles. Science. 2009;323:773–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Torres MA, West AJ, Li G. Sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution as a source of CO2 over geological timescales. Nature. 2014;507:346–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dolezal P, Likic V, Tachezy J, Lithgow T. Evolution of the molecular machines for protein import into mitochondria. Science. 2006;313:314–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Perez A. IP, Ethernet and MPLS Networks. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Cooper R, Madden G, Lloyd A, Schipp M, editors. The Economics of Online Markets and ICT Networks. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Power C. BASIC EDUCATION FOR ALL. In: Campbell J, Baikaloff N, Power C, editors. Towards a Global Community: Educating for Tomorrow’s World. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 71–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Research Notes.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Mystery Of How The Egyptians Moved Pyramid Stones Solved. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/mystery-how-egyptians-moved-pyramid-stones-solved/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Weather Service Modernization: Risks Remain That Full Systems Potential Will Not be Achieved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Horaist DW. Estimating Seed Bank Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Huntsman Is Said to Be Close to Merger With Clariant. New York Times. 2017;:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Research Notes
AbbreviationBMC Res. Notes
ISSN (online)1756-0500
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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