How to format your references using the BMC Research Notes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Research Notes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Firestein GS. Biomedicine. Every joint has a silver lining. Science. 2007;315:952–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bisley JW, Goldberg ME. Neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal area and spatial attention. Science. 2003;299:81–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Totan Y, Güler E, Dervişoğulları MS. Brilliant Blue G assisted epiretinal membrane surgery. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3956.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Srivastava M, Hegde M, Chiruvella KK, Koroth J, Bhattacharya S, Choudhary B, et al. Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Walter RJ. Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1998.
An edited book
1. Asea AAA, Kaur P, Calderwood SK, editors. Heat Shock Proteins and Plants. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cavailhès J, Brossard T, Hilal M, Joly D, Tourneux F-P, Tritz C, et al. Pricing the Homebuyer’s Countryside View. In: Baranzini A, Ramirez J, Schaerer C, Thalmann P, editors. Hedonic Methods in Housing Markets: Pricing Environmental Amenities and Segregation. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 83–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Research Notes.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Why are Parrots Such Good Copycats? IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/why-are-parrots-such-good-copycats/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Need for More Effective Controls Over Computerized Payroll-Processing Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zhu Z. Financial restatements: Implications for management earnings forecasts. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. LINDA GREENHOUSE; Karen W. Arenson contributed reporting from New York for this article. U.S. WINS RULING OVER RECRUITING AT UNIVERSITIES. New York Times. 2006;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Research Notes
AbbreviationBMC Res. Notes
ISSN (online)1756-0500
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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